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45 Cards in this Set

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MEDULLA, many nuclei w vital fxns
--impt for CV regulation
--motor speech
--balance & coordination
--conduit for ascending & descending tracts
Lesion/damage to medulla:
1) CV system regulation from reticular nuclei & its fxns
2) motor speech & swallowing - dysarthria (slurred speech)
3) vestibular sense
Nuclei of the MEDULLA

both CLOSED and OPEN

A red headed dental nerd studies nightly (7)
A accessory cuneatus (top of closed) - sensory tract relay
R reticular - CV regulation and pain modulation
H hypoglossal CN XII - motor to the tongue
D dorsal vagal CN X - PAM: parasympathertic autonomic motor
N nucleus ambiguous CN IX, X - motor to pharynx + larynx
S spinal trigeminal V, VII, IX, X - pain sensation to the face
N NTS-VSI nucleus tractus solitarius CN IX, X - visceral sensory info (extends into pons as gustatory nucleus)
Nuclei of the MEDULLA

CLOSED only

crazy girl (2)
C cuneatus - sensory tract relay
G gracilis - sensory tract relay
Nuclei of the MEDULLA

OPEN only

In various crazy insitutions (4)
I inferior olivary nucleus - motor planning
V vestibular VIII - (on into pons)sensory/motor for balance
C cochlear VIII - hearing (special sense)
I S PAM 9? inferior salivatory IX - parasympathetic autonomic motor
ARNOLD CHIARI malformation

--often a secondary condition associated with spina bifida
--congenital anomaly in which there is a herniation of the cerebellum & medulla thru the formaen magnum into the vertebral canal
--surgery can fix if you find it early enough
--scar tissue tethers on spinal cord, pulls brain down too
LATERAL MEDULLARY Syndrome
WALLENBERG'S Syndrome
--characterized by a set of signs and symptoms related to damage of the lateral medulla due to disruption of its blood supply
--stroke, vascular, classical presentation
Lesion to the PONS

involved in control of respiration and consciousness through reticular activating formation
--pt is typically comatose initially
--damage may affect sensation and movement in the face
--significant damage to ventral pons may result in LOCKED-IN SYNDROME
LOCKED-IN SYNDROME

--may be 2ry to infection, skin lesion, pneumonia, complication due to being immobile,
--ully permanent, maybe minor recovery
--BASILAR A HEMORRHAGE affecting ventral pons bilaterally
--eyes track
--expresses emotion ie. tears
--cannot speak
--unable to move any MM in face or body
--CAN FEEL (sensation)
--knows everything (cognition intact)
--complete paralysis
--suicidal/depressed
Nuclei of the PONS

Rich People Should Consider Taking Great Valuables Away From Self (10)
NON-CRANIAL NERVE NUCLEI
R reticular - pain modulation, respiratory & consciousness
P pontine (ven'l)- motor relay
S superior olivary - sound localization
CRANIAL NERVE NUCLEI
C Chief Sensory 5 7 9 10 - touch sensation for face, ear, pharynx & larynx
T Trigeminal Motor 5 - MM of mastication & tensor tympani
G Gustatory Nucleus (extension of NTS) 7 9 - special = taste
V Vestibular S/M (pons down to open medulla) 8 - for balance
A Abducens motor 6 - motor to lateral rectus for mvmt
F Facial motor 7 - facial expression MM & stapedius
S superior salivatory & lacrimal 7 - PAM, parasympathetic autonomic m
MIDBRAIN - dorsal aspect

COLLICULI - 4 round bumps
superior colliculi - visual system for reflexive eye control

inferior colliculi - relay stations for auditory system
MIDBRAIN

houses key structures impt to visual, auditory, and motor systems
--areas are damaged in pathology tht involves raised ICP
--primary centers for pain modulation
MIDBRAIN - ventral

CEREBRAL PEDUNCLES
corticospinal/corticobulbar tracts = motor
Nuclei of the MIDBRAIN

345 Rich Rednecks Eat Oysters Through May
R reticular (periaqueductal gray) - pain modulation
R red nucleus (tegmentum) - M to body
E Edinger Westphal III (superior colliculus) - PAM
O oculomotor III (superior colliculus) - extraocular MM except LR and SO; levator palpebrae superioris
T trochlear IV (inferior colliculus) - motor to SO
M mesencephalic 5 (MB) - jaw-procioceptive info
Functions of the CEREBELLUM
motor activities that include:
-balance
-MM tone
-motor coordination
-rapid alternating mvmts
-motor learning
-mvmt initiation
cerebellum attached to dorsal brainstem by 3 pairs of large white matter fiber pathways

CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLES
SEe - superior efferent (inf to inferior colliculi)
MA - middle afferent (attached to lateral border of pons)
IAE - inferior contain both and are attached to dorsolateral medulla
Nuclei of the CEREBELLUM

and external features
dentate
interposed (2)
fastigial

--vermis divides into 2 halves
--flocculonodular lobe on ventral aspect
--gray external to white
Gray Matter Spinal Cord Contents

VENTRAL HORN
-large alpha / small gamma motor neurons
-axons leave ventral root to NN skeletal MM fibers
-interneurons: excitatory or inhibitory
Gray Matter Spinal Cord Contents

LATERAL HORN
only at T1-L2 and S2-S4
-small visceral preganglionic motor neurons fxn as part of ANS: autonomic: goosebumps, gut tightens
-axons form part of output pathway for ANS
Gray Matter Spinal Cord Contents

DORSAL HORN cell bodies
-sensory tract neurons
-axons form ascending sensory WM tracts
substantia gelatinosa 2 - pain modulation, interneurons
nucleus proprius 3 4 - for pain & temp to cortex, interneurons & sensory tract cells
Nucleus Dorsalis 7 or Clark's column C8-L3 - proprioceptive info to cerebellum, ST cells
VAN 7 T1-L2/S2-S4 - visceral afferent nucleus - input pathways/info to LH, interneurons
visceral afferent nucleus

DORSAL
VAN
7
T1-L2/S2-S4
input pathways/info to LH
interneurons
Nucleus Dorsalis 7 or Clark's column

DORSAL
7
C8-L3
proprioceptive info to cerebellum
ST cells
nucleus proprius

DORSAL
3 4
pain & temp to cortex
interneurons & sensory tract cells
substantia gelatinosa

DORSAL
2
pain modulation
interneurons
interneurons
relay neurons with short axons that receive incoming info and send it a short distance away to another cell in the SC gray matter; interconnecting gray matter within its own nucleus
motor neurons
cell bodies of alpha and gamma motor neurons are located in the VH of the SC and their axons leave the SC in ventral root to NN skeletal MM fibers
sesory tract neurons
cell bodies are located in DH; axons form scending sensory white matter tracts
preganglionic motor neurons
cell bodies of these neurons are located in the LH in T1-L2 and S2-S4; their axons form part of the output pathway of the ANS
GRAY MATTER
if you destroy the nucleus at C6, you only affect the fxn of that nucleus at C6
each SC segment has its own nucleus
WHITE MATTER
if you destroy the nucleus you affect the entire column
Spinal Cord White Matter Bundles that aren't part of the three columns
1) ventral white commissure - bundle of transverse fibers that is present just ventral to the ventral gray commissure which allows sensory pain info to cross the midline of the SC
2) dorsolateral tract of Lissauer - tract lies bt the apex of the DH of gray matter and surface of cord and consists of short ascending and descending fibers carrying info related to pain
3) fasciculus proprius - thin band of white matter surrounds the gray matter & consists of short ascending & descending fibers which connect spinal segments & impt for intersegmental reflexes
WHITE MATTER BUNDLES

1) ventral white commissure
bundle of transverse fibers that is present just ventral to the ventral gray commissure which allows sensory pain info to cross the midline of the SC
WHITE MATTER BUNDLES

2) dorsolateral tract of Lissauer DLTL
tract lies bt the apex of the DH of gray matter and surface of cord and consists of short ascending and descending fibers carrying info related to pain
WHITE MATTER BUNDLES

3) fasciculus proprius
thin band of white matter surrounds the gray matter & consists of short ascending & descending fibers which connect spinal segments & impt for intersegmental reflexes
Spinal Cord White Matter Columns

SENSORY (left) - DORSAL

only sensory ascending tracts
fasciculus gracilis (only one below T6)
fasciculus cuneatus (above T6 only) divided by the dorsal intermediate sulcus
Spinal Cord White Matter Columns

SENSORY (left) - LATERAL

both sensory ascending & descnding fiber tracts
Dorsal spinocerebellar (S)
Ventral spinocerebellar (S)

Lateral spinothalamic(S)**
spinoreticular (S)**
Spinal Cord White Matter Columns

SENSORY (left) - VENTRAL

both ascending & descnding sensory fiber tracts
Ventral (anterior) spinothalamic (S)**
Anterolateral system/tract
lateral spinothalamic (S)
spinoreticular (S)
ventral (anterior) spinothalamic (S)
Spinal Cord White Matter Columns

MOTOR & SENS REG (right) - LATERAL

both ascending & descending motor & sensory regulation fibers
Lateral corticospinal (M SR)
Rubrospinal (M)
Medullary Reticulospinal (M SR)
Spinal Cord White Matter Columns

MOTOR & SENS REG (right) - VENTRAL

both ascending & descending motor & sensory regulation fibers
Ventral corticospinal (M)
Lateral Vestibulospinal (M)
Medial Vestibulospinal (M)
Pontine Reticulospinal (M SR)
Tectospinal (M)
Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus (MLF) (M)
ventral motor columns that are only found in the cervical region
medial vestibulospinal
pontine reticulospinal
tectospinal
MLF
A lesion in a white matter column
destroys the fxn of all the cell bodies that they originated from
therefore, pathology is more extensive in white matter
SYRINGOMYELIA
causes a cavitating lesion around the central canal of the SC, usually present in cervial corg region & routinely destroys the VWC and alpha and gamma motor neurons in ventral gray matter
starts centrally affecting medial structures then grows laterally
Spinal Nerves
exit through IVF above corresponding vertebrae in cervical region, then IVF below starting with C8 since there is no C8 vertebra
Enlargements
Cervical C5-T1

Lumbar L2-S2
CSF fluid is located in
the subarachnoid space