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65 Cards in this Set

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What is biopsychology?
The scientific study of the biology of behavior
How do experiments differ from non-experiments?
Experiments assess cause/effect relationships and use independent and dependent variables. While non-expermients can only study specific groups or cases and cannot conclude cause/effect relationships.
What are confounding variables?
Unintended differences between the different groups in an experiment that could lead to inaccurate results.
What is meant by converging operations and why is an eclectic approach important?
Converging operations means combining all the different methods and ways of thinking of a science and this is important because it helps obtain knowledge from many different avenues making it more supported and accurate.
What are the functions of glia?
Support and insulation for neurons and are involved in neurotransmission
What is the function of the cell membrane of a neuron?
Encloses the neuron and allows some things to pass through and doesn't allow others.
What is the function of the dendrites of a neuron?
They receive most of the synaptic contacts from other neurons.
What is the function of the axon hillock?
The area of the axon that an impulse is first sent to.
What is the function of the axon of a neuron?
Allows an action potential to travel through it.
What is the function of the myelin sheath?
Allows the action potential to travel faster through the axon.
What is the function of the cell body?
Acts as the metabolic center of the neuron
What are the functions of the buttons of the neuron?
They release chemicals into synapses.
What is the function of the synapses?
These gaps are where the chemical signals are transmitted.
What is a membrane potential?
The difference in electrical charge b/w the inside and outside of a neuron
What is the resting membrane potential?
The difference in charge when the neuron is at rest or not firing and is usually -70 mV
Why is there a resting membrane potential?
The neuron is polarized b/c of many different things acting on it.
What is a concentration gradient?
The tendency of particles to move from areas of high concentration to areas of lower concentration.
What is electrostatic pressure?
The repulsion of like charges and attraction of opposite charges.
What is selective permeability?
Only allows specific things to pass through
How are these forces (concentration gradient and electrostatic pressure) acting on the ions inside and outside of the neuron?
Work with the sodium-potassium pump to push sodium in and potassium out which affects the overall charge of the neuron.
What are post-synaptic potentials?
Electrical charges produced after a neuron fires an action potential.
In what ways do post synaptic potentials differ from action potentials?
Post can decay and lose strength. They can be added together and work together because of this summation.
What is meant by depolarization?
The inside of the neuron is made less negative.
What is meant by hyperpolarization?
Makes the inside of the neuron more negative.
What are EPSPs and IPSPs
EPSPs are excitatory, they depolarize the neuron and therefore bring it closer to firing an action potential
IPSPs are inhibitory, they hyperpolarize the neuron and therefore bring it further from firing an action potential
What causes action potentials?
The neuron reaching threshold of excitation because of the sodium potassium pump
What is the threshold of excitation?
-65 mv or the point the neuron has to reach in order for excitation to occur as the neuron is polarized
How does the membrane potential change during an action potential?
Membrane voltage gated channels open and sodium rushes in as potassium rushes out. The membrane later begins to repolarize and go back to its resting state.
How is an action potential like firing a gun?
Always fires at full strength at the same amount, pulling the trigger harder doesn't affect the speed of the bullet.
What are voltage-gated channels and where are they found?
Ion channels that open or close in response to changes in the level of the membrane potential. They are found on the cell membrane of a neuron.
How does the flow of ions affect the membrane potential during the action potential and during repolarization of the membrane?
It reverses the membrane potential from about -70 mV to +50 mV
What is the refractory period and why does it occur?
The refractory period is a brief time when it is impossible to elicit a second action potential. It occurs because too many potassium ions flow out of the neuron and this hyperpolarizes the neuron for a time.
Why and how are action potentials non-decremental?
The potential will not decay and remains at full strength during its entire conduction. This happens b/c it regenerates itself at each pt. along axon. Also AP is regenerated at each pt.
What is the relationship between refractory period and the direction of the action potential?
The refractory period assures that an axon can only travel forward and not backward. As each segment is in the refractory period 1-2 milliseconds after firing a potential.
How does the conduction of action potentials differ in myelinated axons as compared to non-myelinated axons?
In myelinated axons, the pot. moves faster b/c axn pot. skips from node to node.
What is meant by saltatory conduction?
The transmission of action potentials in myelinated axons as the signal jumps or skips from node to node.
What is exocytosis and what causes it?
When calcium flow into buttons causes vesicles to spit out neurotransmitters to open channels which then allow more ions to come in.
What happens to neurotransmitters after they bind to their receptors?
They are either taking up again by the presynaptic neuron that released them, diffused completely, or parts of them are taken back up during reuptake.
What are autoreceptors?
Receptors located on the presynaptic membrane that bind to their neuron's own neurotransmitters.
How do ionotropic and metabotropic receptors differ?
Iono binds to the receptor and causes ion channels to open and has an immediate effect.
Metabo binds to receptor and activates G-protein to act as a second messenger which then goes onto open an ion channel or finds another messenger.
What is the relationship between different classes neurotransmitters and the two different types of receptors?
Small molecule NT usually rely on ionotropic receptors or metabotropic receptors that open ion channels.
Large molecule NT usually rely on metabotropic receptors that use second messengers.
What does GABA do?
It is the main inhibitory NT in the system.
What does glutamate do?
Main excitatory NT in system
How does the mechanism of action of the soluble gases differ from that of the other neurotransmitters?
They are very different because they float and do not behave the same way and are very brief in existence.
How do agonists and antagonists work?
An agonist mimics a NT actions and stimulate more release of the NT.
An antagonist blocks NT actions.
What are the major divisions of the nervous system?
The central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
What is a tract or projection?
a bundle of axons traveling together thru the CNS
What is a nerve?
A set of axons traveling together thru the PNS.
What are nuclei?
A cluster of cell bodies w/ in the CNS.
What are ganglia?
A cluster of cell bodies in the PNS.
Where is the dorsal direction?
The back of the body or the top of the brain
Where is the ventral direction?
The stomach or front of the body or the bottom of the brain.
Where is the anterior direction?
Toward the head or the front of the brain
Where is the posterior direction?
Toward the tail/feet or the back of the brain
What does superior mean?
Above a certain area
What does inferior mean?
Below another area
What is lateral?
Toward the edge
What is medial?
Towards the center
What is proximal?
Closer to something
What is distal?
Farther from something
What is ipsilateral?
on the same side as
What is contralateral?
on the opposite side of
What is a coronal slice?
On the front from top to bottom like removing the face
What is a sagittal slice?
From the side (like slicing the ears off)
What is a midsagittal slice?
Along the center from the side