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78 Cards in this Set

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What enzyme makes Ach from what two compounds?
Enzyme:Choline Acetyl-transferase

Reactants: Acetyl-CoA and Choline
What enzyme makes L-DOPA from Tyrosine?
Tyrosine Hydoxylase
What two enzymes are used in the production of Dopamine?
Tyrosine Hydroxylase and AAAD
What enzyme makes Dopamine from L-DOPA?
AAAD
What four enzymes are used to make Nor-epi from scratch?
Tyrosine Hydroxylase, AAAD, Dopamine B Hydroxylase and PNMT.
What are the two enzymes involved in making Seratonin?
Tryptophan Hydroxylase and AAAD
What does the enzyme Tryptophan Hydroxylase convert to what?
Tryptophan to 5-Hydroxytryptophan
What enzyme actually produces Seratonin from what?
AAAD; 5-Hydroxytryptophan
Neurotransmitter reuptake mechanisms use what to provide energy for transport?
Na gradient
What enzyme degrades Seratonin, Norepi and dopamine?
Monoamine Oxidase (MAO)
What enzyme converts Glutamine to Glutamate?
Glutaminase
What takes up Glutamate from the synapse and what happens after that?
Glial cells take up Glutamate and converts it into Glutamine which is given back to the neuron. It is then converted to Glutamate.
What transports Glutamate into glial cells
Excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT)
What are the four enzymatic steps in the GABA shunt?
1. AKG to Glutamate: GABA-T
2. Glutamate to GABA: GAD (Vit B)
3. GABA to Succinic Semialdehyde: GABA-T
4. SSA to Succinic Acid: SSADH
CO is produced from what, by what? What are the byproducts?
Produced from heme by heme oxidase (HO)

Byproducts: Iron and Biliverdin
NO is produced from what, by what? What is a byproduct?
Produced from L-arginine by Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS).

Byproduct: Citrulline
Both NO and CO act on what enzyme?
Soluble guanylyl cyclase
Glutamate acts...
Excitatory; in most projection neurons
GABA acts...
Inhibitory; in most local interneurons
Glycine acts...
Inhibitory; in the spinal cord
Ach neurons have cell bodies in what parts of the brain?
Striatum, nucleus basalis and septal nucleus
Where does the septal nucleus project?
Hippocampus; target of Alzheimers
Where does the nucleus basalis project(4)?
Cortex, aymglada, thalamus and brainstem
Norepi neurons are located in what part of the brain?
Locus ceruleus
Seratonin neurons are located in what part of the brain?
Raphe nuclei
Histamine neurons are located in what part of the brain?
Tuberomammillary nucleus
What are the functions of seratonin(2)?
Mood alteration and sleep cycles
What are the functions of NE(5)?
Alertness, attention, mood, sleep cycles and memory
What are the functions of histamine(2)?
Alertness/arousal and energy metabolism
Dopamine neurons are found in what parts of the brain(3)?
Substantia nigra, Ventral tegmentum and Arcuate nucleus
What NT may be found in the retina?
Dopamine
Where does the substantia nigra project?
Striatum
Where does the ventral tegmentum project(3)?
Pre-frontal cortex, amyglada and nucleus accumbens
Where does the arcuate nucleus project?
Median emminence of the hypothalmus
What function is associated with dopamine and the substantia nigra?
Motor control
What function is associated with dopamine and the arcuate nucleus?
GnRH release
What function is associated with dopamine and the ventral tegmentum?
Reward system or motivation
What are some of the roles of NO in the brain(4)?
Development, synaptic transmission, learning and memory(in particular)
What are the two classes of NT receptors?
Inotrophic and Metabotropic
How do ionotropic receptors work?
Ligand-gated ion channels; fast
How to metabotropic receptors work?
G-protein coupled receptors; slow
Glutamate's ionotropic receptors are(3)?
AMPA, NMDA and Kainate
Ach's metabotropic receptor and ionotropic receptors?
Metabotropic: Muscarinic
Ionotropic: Nicotinic
GABA's ionotropic and metabotropic receptors?
Iono: GABAA GABAC
Metabo: GABAB
Seratonin mostly has what type of receptor?
Metabotropic
Glycine uses what type of receptor?
Ionotropic
What NTs are only metabotropic?
1. Dopamine
2. NE
3. Neuropeptides
4. Sensory receptors
Glutamate ionotropic receptors have how many subunits and how many TM regions? What end is cytosolic?
1. 4 subunits
2. 3 TM regions
3. Carboxy terminus
All ionotropic receptors, save glutamate have how many subunits and how many TM regions? What end is cytosolic?
1. 5 subunits
2. 4 TM regoins
3. None
Ionotropic receptordiversity is achieved how?
Using different combinations of subunits
Excitatory ionotropic receptors are permeable to what?
Cations; Na, K, Ca
Inhibitory ionotropic receptors are permeable to what?
Anions; Cl
What are two antagonists for nicotinic receptors?
Curare and alpha-bungarotoxin
Nicotinic receptors are (homo/hetero) in muscle? In brain?
Muscle: hetero
Brain: either
NMDA channels are permeable to what and when?
Calcium (K and Na), when Mg is removed due to depolarization and Glutamate binds.
AMPA channels are permeable to what and when?
K and Na, at resting membrane potentials
NMDA is involved in what process?
Learning
What are antagonists of GABAA?
Picrotoxin and biculline
Where is GABAC found?
Retina
What is an antagonist of Glycine receptors?
Strychnine
What percentage of clinically relevant drugs target metabotropic receptors? Of the genome?
50-60%; 1-3%
What is the structure of a metabotropic receptor?
7 TM portions with no subunits
Muscarinic Ach receptors open what type of channels?
K channels
Glutamate and GABAB receptors are what type of receptors?
Presynaptic autoreceptors
How do G-proteins offer long lasting effects?
By altering gene transcription.
What is nicotine used for?
Agonist of nicotinic receptors; smoking
Ach drugs are used in what diseases?
Alzheimers and MG
Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy is associated with a mutation where?
Ach receptor - alpha 4
Startle disease and stiff baby syndrome can be traced to a mutation where?
Glycine receptor - alpha 1
What are agonists of GABA?
Alcohol, benzodiazepines and barbituates
What diseases are associated with GABA?
Alcoholism and epilepsy
What are two NMDA agonists?
PCP and Ketamine
Kainic acid causes what?
Seizures
How does cocaine work?
Dopamine transport blocker
How do amphetamines work?
Runs the dopamine transporter in reverse and cause NE release
How does ritalin work?
Blocks dopamine and NE transport
What is MDMA and what NT is it associated with?
Ecstasy; seratonin
NMDA can activate what enzyme?
NOS