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47 Cards in this Set

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(see under pyramids)
anterior (ventral) median fissure
lies just lateral to the optic chiasm; pierced by the central branches of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries
anterior perforated substance
primary visual cortex or area 17; cortex represented in the cuneus (dorsally) and lingual (ventrally) gyri surrounding (and in the banks of) the calcarine fissure
calcarine cortex
a narrow channel running through the midbrain that connects the third and fourth ventricles
cerebral aqueduct (of sylvius)
(see under fourth ventricle)
central canal
while not entirely accurate, for purposes of this class, the ____ and the crus cerebri are approximately the same structure; the term _____ actually encompasses some other areas as well
cerebral peduncles
a cortical area which begins beneath the corpus callosum (the “subcallosal” area) and continues over the top of the corpus callosum; associated with the limbic system; involved in emotional behavior; cell bodies of origin of the cingulum
cingulate gyrus
arterial circle which lies in the subarachnoid space in the interpeduncular cistern; provides a route (theoretically) through which blood entering by either internal carotid artery or the basilar artery may be distributed to any part of the cerebral hemispheres; see drawing on page 3 of this handout
circle of willis
"little hills" in the roof (tectum) of the midbrain; superior (anterior) and inferior (posterior) ____ are involved with visual and auditory reflexes, respectively; the superior colliculus has important connections to cervical regions of the spinal cord to allow for reflex turning of the head
colliculi
bundle of nerve fibers passing from one hemisphere of the brain (or spinal cord) to the other; important ____s in the brain include the:
commissure
a massive fiber bundle connecting the two cerebral hemispheres; the "rostrum" or "beak" is the part of the ____ from the genu to the lamina terminalis; the "genu" is the bend of the anterior portion of the ____; the main part of the ____ is referred to as the "body"; the "splenium" is the thickened posterior portion
corpus callosum
fiber bundle crossing in the lamina terminalis; fibers arise mainly in the temporal lobe
anterior commissure
fiber bundle crossing in the median plane just inferior to the root of the pineal body (a glandular structure which lies between the superior colliculi); composed mainly of fibers arising in the midbrain
posterior commissure
("structure(s) resembling a leg or pair of legs"): two large bundles of nerve fibers, each originating from the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere; contains major descending nerve fiber tracts (e.g., corticospinal, corticopontine, corticobulbar tracts); the ______ make up part of the cerebral peduncles; thus the fossa lying between the two crura cerebri on the ventral surface of the brain is called the "interpeduncular" fossa
crus (plural crura) cerebri:
"c"-shaped paired structure, one in each hemisphere (so closely fused they often appear as one structure); cell bodies of origin primarily in the hippocampus; fibers end in the mammillary bodies of the hypothalamus
fornix
ventricle beneath the cerebellum; joins the ventricular system to the subarachnoid space through apertures in its roof; ____ continues downward in the spinal cord as the central canal
fourth ventricle
separates the thalamus above from the hypothalamus below
hypothalamic sulcus
part of the diencephalon; made up of many small nuclei which have important autonomic and endocrine functions
hypothalamus
cortex of the temporal lobe which is buried in the sylvian (lateral) fissure
insula
deep median hollow on the inferior surface of the brain which lies between the cerebral peduncles (crura cerebri) of the midbrain; other surrounding structures include the optic chiasm anteriorly, and the pons posteriorly; the hypothalamus forms the roof of the fossa; arachnoid spans this fossa to form the interpeduncular cistern (containing the arterial circle of willis)
interpeduncular fossa
point of attachment of the thalamus on both sides of the brain (the thalamus is a paired structure); not a commissure; no known functional significance
interthalamic adhesion
two openings in the septum pellucidum which are the only route of communication between the lateral and third ventricles
interventricular foramina of monro
a thin membrane which forms the anterior wall of the third ventricle; the anterior commissure runs in the ____; during development, the corpus callosum develops from fibers running between the developing hemispheres through the ____
lamina terminalis
c-shaped cavity in each hemisphere; each ____ consists of an anterior horn (frontal lobe), a body (parietal lobe), a posterior or occipital horn (occipital lobe), and an inferior or temporal horn (temporal lobe); csf is made by the choroid plexus primarily in the ____s; the anterior horns (and a small part of the body) of the ____s are separated from one another by the septum pellucidum; more posterior parts are laterally located (so they are separated by brain substance or parenchyma)
lateral ventricle
two rounded nuclei in the floor of the hypothalamus; they are part of the hypothalamus which can be seen in the interpeduncular fossa; receive input from the hippocampus via the fornix
mamillary bodies
____ oblongata; the "bulb"; part of the brainstem; important clinically because it contains nuclei of many of the cranial nerves and the ____ry reticular formation; continuous with the spinal cord at the foramen magnum
medulla
also called the brachium pontis; axons of neurons deep within the pons (pontine nuclei) cross the median plane and form the ____ on their way to the cerebellar cortex
middle cerebellar peduncle
the olfactory bulbs lie on the dura immediately above the cribriform plate of the ethmoid, and these structures alone separate it from the nasal mucous membrane; fractures of the anterior cranial fossa may damage the olfactory bulb and to lead to blood and cerebrospinal fluid leaking into the nose and the orbit; route for infection of the meninges following head injury; the olfactory bulbs project directly (without going through the thalamus) to the pyriform cortex (primary olfactory cortex) which is part of the parahippocampal gyrus
olfactory tracts/bulbs
a medullary structure lateral to the pyramid and separated from it by fibers of the xii cranial nerve (hypoglossal); this elevation is produced by the underlying inferior ___ nucleus which projects to the cerebellum
olive
the optic nerve consists of axons of retinal ganglion cells leaving one eye; at the chiasm or crossing, fibers from the nasal half of each retina cross to the opposite side of the brain; temporal fibers from each retina do not cross but continue ipsilaterally; after the chiasm, the optic tract contains nasal fibers from the contralateral eye and temporal fibers from the ipsilateral eye
optic nerve/chiasm/tract
primarily an "old" cortical area; located medial and ventral in the temporal lobe; the uncus is part of the ____; just slightly posterior to the uncus is the pyriform ("pear") cortex, a part of the ____ which represents primary olfactory cortex
parahippocampal gyrus
sulcus which runs primarily on the medial aspect of the hemisphere; a line from the sulcus to the pre-occipital notch is used as a landmark to delineate the occipital, parietal and temporal lobes
parieto-occipital sulcus
(usually torn off when the brain is removed from the skull post-mortem); hypophysis; part of the hypothalamus attached to the brain by the tuber cinereum and infundibulum
pituitary
on a gross level (seen superficially on the exterior surface of the brain), the ____ can be divided into the ____ proper anteriorly (rostrally) and the middle cerebellar peduncle posteriorly (caudally); the dividing mark between the ____ proper and the peduncle is the fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve. internally, the ____ consists of two zones, a dorsal portion containing cranial nerve nuclei and ascending pathways, and a ventral portion containing pontine nuclei and groups of descending fibers, including the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts. some axons or axon collaterals of the corticospinal pathway synapse onto pontine nuclei neurons; other axons of the corticospinal tract continue through the ventral ____ into the medulla (where they form the pyramids of the medulla)
pons
a single layer of gray matter in the angle between the crura cerebri in the interpeduncular fossa; pierced by the central branches of the posterior cerebral arteries
posterior perforated substance
two large elevations visible on the ventral aspect of the brain and separated by the anterior (ventral) median fissure in the medulla; bundles of nerve fibers originate from cells in the cerebral cortex, principally in the precentral gyrus (area 4), and descend through the hemispheres, the crura cerebri, and the pons form into the two "____" in the medulla; these fibers make up the cortico-spinal or pyramidal tract in the medulla; fibers decussate in the lower medulla; the fibers within the ____ are on their way to the spinal cord
pyramids
(see olfactory tracts/bulbs and parahippocampal gyrus)
pyriform cortex
a thin vertical partition consisting of two parallel laminae; lies primarily between the anterior horns of the two lateral ventricles
septum pellucidum
a small area lying ventral to the thalamus, medial to the internal capsule, and caudal to the hypothalamus
subthalamic region
"roof" of the midbrain; inferior and superior colliculi are major structures of the midbrain ____
tectum
(“covering structure”): the "floor" or ventral portion of the midbrain lying beneath the aqueduct of sylvius; contains major ascending and descending tracts; an important nucleus in this area would include the substantia nigra (involved in parkinson’s disease)
tegmentum
("anteroom"): structure made up of a large number of individual nuclei; some of the nuclei of the ____ are relay nuclei, or nuclei which relay information to the cortex (for example, the lateral geniculate nucleus receives input from the eyes and then relays the visual information to the primary visual cortex)
thalamus
a single, midline ventricle; borders formed anteriorly by the lamina terminalis, laterally by the thalamus, and posteriorly by the superior end of the aqueduct and root of the pineal
third ventricle
a structure lying medially in the cerebellum; downward pressure on the brain produced by space occupying lesions can cause the ____ to herniate into the foramen magnum
tonsil
(parahippocampal gyrus)
uncus
medial part of the cerebellum; the tonsil lies nearest the midline and is continuous with the ____
vermis