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107 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
_ has an inductive effect on surface ectoderm to make neural tube
Neural ectoderm gives rise to _
Neural crest cells
_ arise from neural ectoder but remain in the surface of ectoderm
Ectodermal placodes
_ separates alar and basal plates
Sulcus limitans
Three layers of neural tube
Inner epithelial layer (ependyma)
Mantle layer
Marginal layer
Alar plates are _
Basal plates are _

Alar - sensory
Basal - motor
Alar plates become _
Dorsal horn
Basal plates become _
Ventral motor horn
Cranial part of CNS forms three primary brain vesicles _
Name 3 brain flexures
Name derivatives of rhombencephalon
Medulla oblongata
Fourth ventricle
Prosencephalon derivatives _
Telencephalic vesicles develop from prosencephalon and will form _
cerebral hemispheres
Visual system is an outgrowth of _
Anterior pituitary derives from _
Rathkes pouch
Posterior pituitary derives from _
Patient presents with raised intracranial pressure, visual loss and diabetes insipidus - patient diagnosed with tumor - name tumor and what is it derived from
Craniopharyngioma - benign epithelial tumor derived from Rathkes pouch at junction of infundibulum and pituitary
Basal plate of spinal cord includes :

_ nucleus
_ columns
sacral _ columns
Spinal accessory
Alar plate of spinal cord includes :
_ area
Visceral receptive
Substantia gelatinosa
Basal plate of medulla includes :
_ nucleus
_ nucleus
_ nucleus
_ nucleus
Inferior salivatory
Dorsal vagal
Nucleus ambiguus
Alar plate of medulla includes 3 nuclei - name them
Solitary nucleus
Spinal trigeminal
Vestibular and cochlear
Basal plate of pons includes 4 nuclei - name them
Superior salivatory
Alar plate of pons includes _
Chief sensory of V
Basal plate of midbrain includes (3 nuclei)
Occulomotor nucleus
Alar plate of midbrain includes only one structure - ?
Cortical neurons migrate from _
Subventricular zone
6 layers of cerebral cortex are formed in _ fashion. As a result oldest neurons are in _ layers, newest are in _ layers
Inside out
Vast majority of neurons in same layer have same morphology and connection - T/F
Cranium bifidum is a _
Cleft in cerebral cortex
Baby is born with cranial defect and meninges are outside the skull - name defect
Baby is born with cranial defect and meninges and part of the brain are outside the skull - name defect
Baby is born with cranial defect and meninges, part of the brain and ventricles are outside the skull - name defect
Woman suffers from miscarriage - fetus has one eye in the middle of forehead and proboscus - cerebral hemispheres are fused, along with eyes - name anomaly - it is a defect of what
Holoprosencephaly - involves defect of midline (clefts, etc)
Woman suffers from miscarriage, baby is prematurely born with no cerebral hemispheres (brain stem and diencephalon are present). During pregnancy woman had elevated alpha fetoprotein levels and was diagnosed with polyhydramnios (excessive amniotic fluid) - name anomaly and what is it caused by
Meroanencephaly - failure of anterior neural tube to close
Baby is born with microcephaly (small head) - possible causes
- Microencephaly - small brain - growth of calvaria is caused by pressure from growing brain
- Premature synostosis
Hydrocephalus can cause _
brain compression and brain atrophy
Mantle layer of neural tube consists of _
alar and basal plates
Gray matter consists of _
Cell bodies
Marginal layer consists of _ matter which is _
White - bundles of axons
Location of spinal cord
Posterior midline
Extent of spinal cord
Foramen magnum - L1-L2
How many spinal nerves are there
Two enlargements of spinal cord are _ - why are they there?
Cervical and lumbar - to accomodate increased innervation for limbs - plexi - brachial and lumbar-sacral
_ sulcus is right in the middle of the posterior spinal cord and divides it into right and left parts
Posterior median sulcus
_ sulcus of posterior spinal cord doesnt run entire length of spinal cord - only runs in _ areas, located between
Posterior intermediate sulcus
Cervical and upper thoracic (starts at T6)
Posterior median and posterolateral sulci
_ sulcus runs entire length of cord and serves as entry for posterior (sensory) root
Posterolateral sulcus
In ventral aspect of spinal cord _ runs through the whole length of spinal cord and divides cord into right and left
Anterior median fissure
Inferior aspect of spinal cord presents _
Filum terminale
Conus medularis
Cauda equina
_ matter is H shaped in spinal cord section
White matter of spinal cord is divided into 3 _
Funiculi - posterior, anterior and lateral
Posterior funiculus is located where
Between midline and posterior (dorsal) horn - on top
Anterior funiculus location
Between midline and ventral (anterior) roots
Lateral funiculus location
Between dorsal and ventral roots
Grey matter in spinal cord is divided into layers called _
Rexed laminae - I to IX and X around central canal
Cervical spinal cord has _ gray matter, _ white matter (large, little)
Large grey matter
Large white matter
Thoracic spinal cord has _ grey matter, _ white matter (a lot, little)
Little gray matter
A lot white matter
Lumbar spinal cord has _ gray matter, _ white matter (a lot, little)
A lot
Very little
Sacral spinal cord has very little _
white matter
Lamina _ contains neurons that are contacted by neurons from lamina II and primary afferents - respond to noxious and thermal stimuli
Lamina I
Neurons coming into spinal cord go up and down using _
Tract of Lissauer - right above lamina I
Substantia gelatinosa is located in lamina _ and can be found all over spinal cord
Lamina _ neurons function as interneurons
Lamina _ is present only in enlargements
Which lamina contains IML, Dorsal Nucleus of Clarke, sacral parasympathetic nucleus
IML has _ neurons at _ levels
Sacral parasympathetic levels
Lamina _ is separate because of descending tract terminates here, contains propriospinal interneurons
Lamina _ consist of lower motor neurons - alpha, beta, gamma motor neuronsA
Lamina _ surrounds central canal
Lamina _ are receiving centers for cutaneomucous afferents
Lamina _ and _ comprise substantia gelatinosa
II and III
Lamina _ and _ comprise proprioceptive area
V and VI
Alpha motor neurons are _ fibers, gamma are _ , beta are _
Alpha - extrafusal, gamma - intrafusal
Beta - both (very few of those)
Neurons in ventral horn exhibit _
Neurons that innervate proximal muscles are more _ , distal muscles are more _
Neurons innervating flexors are more _, extensors are more _
Posterior funiculus consists of two posterior columns - fasciculus _ and fasciculus _
Gracilis - more medial
Cuneatus - more lateral
Lateral funiculus is associated with what tracts
Spinocerebellar - anterior and posterior
Anterolateral system (pain and temperature)
Anterior funiculus is associated with what tracts
Medial longitudinal fasciculus
Reticulospinal and vestibulospinal tracts
Blood supply of spinal cord is derived from _
Anterior and posterior spinal arteries
GSE fibers are _ sitting in _
Alpha motor neurons
Anterior horn
Patient presents with dull and aching pain, pins and needs, searing, burning sensations following peripheral nerve injury - what is this pain called and what is it caused by, how do you get rid of this pain
Deafferentation pain - anatomic pathways for pain perception are partially or entirely disrupted
Treatment - placing an electrode in the posterior horn
Receptor involved in autogenic inhibition is _
Golgi tendon
Muscle stretch reflex involves
Stretching _
Stimulating _
Feedback to _
Stretching tendon
Stimulating sensory endings
Feedback to motor neuron
Reciprocal inhibition
Flexor reflex (withdrawal) involves :
_ input
Exciting _
Inhibiting _
Cutaneous input (pain)
Cross extension reflex involves :
_ input
_ reflex
_ muscles
Cutaneous input (pain)
Withdrawal reflex
Contralateral muscles
Patient presents with sharp burning pain in dermatomal distribution of L4 - what is the diagnosis, why doesnt he have significant sensory loss
If muscle would be involved - what would be symptoms
Radiculopathy - doesnt cause significant sensory loss due to overlap of dermatomes
Muscle weakness (not complete paralysis)
Patient presents with pain, absence of biceps reflex and no sensation over distribution of C5-C6 - diagnosis
Musculocutaneous mononeuropathy - only one nerve involved ( no overlap)
Diabetic patient presents with motor and sensory deficits in distal leg and arm - diagnosis, what is this distribution called
Polyneuropathy - stocking/glove distribution
Tabes dorsalis is common in _ and involves _
Tertiary syphillis patients
Posterior columns
Polio patient presents with absense of reflexes and muscle atrophy - which neurons are affected, what lamina is affected
Alpha motor neurons
Lamina IX
Patient presents after spinal cord injury - right after injury patient was paralyzed and his spinal cord completely shut down however he recovered after two weeks - what is the name of his condition
Spinal shock
Brown Sequard syndrome is a _
Functional hemisection of spinal cord - loss of function on one half of the spinal cord
Patient presents with bilateral loss of pain and thermal sensations - diagnosis and what is it caused by
Syringomyelia - cavity in spinal cord - affects axons that cross midline (anterior commissure)
Brainstem has 3 parts - name them
Medulla oblongata
Other then 3 parts of brainstem what else is associated with it
Pyramids are found where
Anterior medulla
Olives, preolivary and postolivary sulci are found where
Anterior medulla
Inferior pontine sulcus can be found where _
Anterior medulla
Medulla is associated with what CN's
Cochlear nucleus is located where
Posterior medulla
Pontomedullary junction is associated with following CN's
Basilar pons and middle cerebellar peduncle are located on _
anterior pons
Pons is associated with _ CN
Trigeminal nerve
Midbrain is associated with two CN
CN IV exits on _
posterior surface of midbrain
Each region has 4 parts of brainstem _