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35 Cards in this Set

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nodes of Ranvier
gaps between segments of myelin
Astrocytes
-absorb and recycle neurotransmitters

-regulate blood-brain barrier

-regulate nutrient and gas concentrations
Oligodendrocytes
-Myelinate CNS axons
Microglia
Remove cellular debris and pathogens
Ependymal cells
Help in production, circulation, and monitoring of cerebral spinal fluid
Norepinephrine Synthesis
Tyrosine --> DOPA --> Dopamine --> NE
Acetylcholine Synthesis
Choline + Acetyl-CoA = Acetylcholine
Na/K Concentration
Inside the cell: high K

Outside the cell: high Na
Action Potential
1. Voltage-gated Na channels open (bc of depolarization) and Na rushes into cell.


2. Na channels close and voltage-gated K channels open, letting K rush out of the cell.
Curare
DRUG

blocks ACh receptors

Leads to paralysis by blocking nerve impulses to muscles
Botulism toxin
DRUG

-prevents release of ACh from presynaptic membrane

-results in paralysis
Anticholinesterases
DRUG

NERVE GAS

-inhibit activity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Acetylcholine is NOT degraded and continues to affect receptors.

-No coordinated muscular contractions take place
Afferent neurons
Neurons that carry sensory info
Efferent neurons
Carry motor commands
CNS Divisions
1. Prosencephalon

2. Mesencephalon

3. Rhombencephalon
Prosencephalon
FOREBRAIN

Consists of:
1. telencephalon

2. diencephalon
Telencephalon
PART OF THE PROSENCEPHALON

Components:
1. Cerebral cortex
2. Olfactory bulb
Diencephalon
PART OF THE PROSENCEPHALON

Components:
1. thalamus
2. hypothalamus
Thalamus
Relay and integration center for spinal cord and cerebral cortex
Hypothalamus
Controls hunger, thirst, sex drive, water balance, blood pressure, and temp regulation

Also important for endocrine system
Mesencephalon
MIDBRAIN

Relay center for visual and auditory impulses

IMP for motor control
Rhombencephalon
HINDBRAIN

Consists of:
1. Cerebellum
2. Pons
3. Medulla
Cerebellum
PART OF RHOMBENCEPHALON

-helps modulate motor impulses

-imp for balance, hand-eye coordination, and rapid movements
Pons
PART OF RHOMBENCEPHALON

-Allows cortex to communicate with cerebellum
Medulla
PART OF RHOMBENCEPHALON

Controls breathing, heart rate, and gastrointestinal activity
Spinal Cord
-Sensory info enters spinal cord through the dorsal horn.

-All motor info exits the spinal cord through the ventral horn
Somatic nervous system
-Responsible for voluntary movement
Automatic nervous system
-Regulates body's internal environment without aid of conscious control.

Two subdivisions:
1. sympathetic NS
2. Parasympathetic NS
Sympathetic NS
-Responsible for "fight or flight" responses

-increases blood pressure and heart rate

-increases blood flow to muscles

-decreases gut motility

-dilates bronchioles for increased gas exchange

-NE is primary NT

-Dilates pupil
Parasympathetic NS
-Conserves energy

-Lower heart rate

-Increase gut motility
Cones
-Sensitive to color

-respond to high-intensity illumination
Rods
-Sensitive to night vision

-respond to low-intensity illumination
Path of light
Rods/cones --> bipolar cells --> ganglion cells --> optic nerve
myopia
nearsightedness
Hyperopia
farsightedness