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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Central nerve system (CNS)
Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Cranial and spinal nerves and their branches (includes ANS)
Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
Part of nmotor system controlling what are mostly involuntary functions (function of glands, smooth muscles of gut, bronchi and blood vessels and activity of heart)
Glia
Supporting cells of the brain
Astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia
Neurons
Nerve cells
Soma/ Cell body
Where the nucleus and most metabolic machinery are
Nissl Substance
Rough endoplasmic reticulum in neuron cell body
Dendrites
Processes from neuron onto whch synapses are made
Dendritic spines
Processes off of dendrites for synaptic connection
Dendritic arbor
The branching pattern of dendrites
Axon
Neuronal process along which action potentials are propagated
Collateral
Branching of axons
Myelin
Covering of axon that speeds conduction
Node of Ranvier
Area of axon between myelin where axon not insulated
Electrotonic
Passive spread of electrical potential (voltage).
Degrades with distance from site of generation
Action potential
Propagated (regenerated) electrical potential that travels length of axon
Saltatory
"Jumping" action potential from one node of Ranvier to the next
Synapse
Site of contact between one neuron and the next.
Usually axodendritic, axosomatic or axoaxonic
Presynaptic and postsynaptic
The sides of a synapse usually comprised of an axon terminal (presynaptic) that will communicate with the postsynaptic neuron usually through release of neurotransmitter
Neurotransmitter
Chemical released from one neuron to influence activity in another
Reuptake
One way of terminating action of a NT by taking it back into neuron
Axon transport
Flow of cellular material and constituents back and forth along axon
Synaptic vesicle
Vesicle in presynaptic part of nerve terminal, released in response to action potential
Inhibitory
Anthing that decreases the chance that a neuron will generate an action potential
Excitory
Anything that increases the chance that a neuron will generate an action potential
Modulatory
Anything that changes the likelihood of generating action potential without, itself, generating an action potential
Nucleus
Collection of neurons within the CNS that have similar inputs, outputs and functions
Ganglia
Collection of neurons outside the CNS.
May be autonomic or sensory (such as dorsal root ganglia)
Tract/ Fasciculus
Collection of axons in the CNS that have similar origin, termination and function
Funiculus
The three areas of white matter in the spinal cord (anterior, lateral or posterior to the gray matter)
Each funiculus contains several tracts/ fasciculi
Pathway
A series of tracts that convey a particular type of information through several relays in the CNS
1st order, 2nd order, etc
Sequence of neurons in a pathway.
Each neuron will have an axon that follows a different tract.
Origin/ termination
Term used with tracts to describe where tract start and terminates (i.e. where cell bodies and synapses are)
Target
Term used with tract to describe the site of termination
Relay
Site where one tract synapses on neurons that will give to next tract in pathway
Decussation
A site of tract or pathway CROSSING to opposite side of the CNS
Commisure
A CONNECTION between one side of the nervous system and the other
Ipsi/contralateral
Same side or opposite side of the body or nervous system, respectively
Afferent vs efferent
Literally going toward or away from.
Must be given a point of reference (e.g. afferent or efferent to/ from a nucleus)
If none is given then the CNS is considered the point of reference and afferent = sensory and efferent = motor.
Somatotopy
Topographic representation of the body in the nervous system
Horizontal (axial) plane
Seprates body into superior and inferior portions
Brain stem
Rostral to spinal cord. Consists of medulla, pons and midbrain through which tracts pass from the spinal cord, containing nuclei of cranial nerves and enters for many involuntary function
Cerebellum
Dorsal to brain stem and most involved in coordination and learning of movement
Diencephalon
Rostral to brain stem and consisting of hypothalamus, thalamus and epithalamus
Telencephalon
Rostral to thalamus
Consist of cerebral cortex ad basal ganglia (a misnomer)