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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
components of a cerebral hemisphere
A. Cortex (discussed in detail in a previous lecture)
B. Lateral ventricles and deep nuclei
C. Underlying "white" matter
__________ of the lateral ventricles are located in the frontal lobes and are separated from each other by the (a thin "membrane-like" structure containing small groups of neurons)
Anterior horns; septum pellucidum
Most of the body of each lateral ventricle is located in the _______ lobe
parietal
The ventral part of the "C" of the lateral ventricles is made by the _______ horn which is located in the lobe
temporal or inferior; temporal
The two lateral ventricles are connected to the third ventricle through openings in the ________ are __________
septum pellucidum (interventricular foramina of Monro)
The _______ are a group of nuclei lying deep within the cerebral hemispheres which are derived from the x _____ in development
basal ganglia (or more correctly, basal “nuclei”); basal ganglia (or more correctly, basal “nuclei”)
list the basal ganglia (
1 caudate
2 putamen
3 globus pallidus
4 amygdala complex

other nuclei, for example the claustrum, may also be included as part of the basal ganglia
Three of the basal ganglia nuclei associated with motor function
1 Caudate
2 Putamen
3 globus pallidus
caudate
("tailed" structure); "C"-shaped; head of the caudate lies in the floor of the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle; tail "ends" in the amygdala
Putamen
(that which "falls off in pruning”); lateral most of the structures, at the level of the insula (the cortex buried in the depths of the Sylvian or lateral fissure)
Globus pallidus
("pale globe"); medial to the putamen and "connected" to it; divided into lateral (external) and medial (internal) segments; separated from the thalamus by the fibers of the internal capsule
The caudate, putamen and globus pallidus are referred to collectively as the _____
corpus striatum ("striped" body; in anterior portions, fibers of the internal capsule push apart the caudate and putamen, giving the area a "striped" appearance)
Corpus striatum components
1 caudate
2 putamen
3 globus pallidus

("striped" body; in anterior portions, fibers of the internal capsule push apart the caudate and putamen, giving the area a "striped" appearance)
neostriatum components
caudate and putamen; related embryologically
Lentiform nucleus
putamen and globus pallidus

not related embryologically but which are joined
Nuclei of the corpus striatum are part of what is referred to as the ____ motor system
extrapyramidal
the ___ is a C-shaped fiber bundle connecting the ___ in the temporal lobe and the ____ of the hypothalamus (diencephalon)
fornix
hippocampus
mammillary bodies
axons which connect cortical areas within the same hemisphere
association fibers
list the long assocaiation fiber bundles
Superior longitudinal fasciculus
Inferior longitudinal fasciculus
Superior fronto-occipital and inferior frontal-occipital fasciculi
Cingulum
Describe the short association fibers
arcuate fibers or subcortical U-fibers
the cell bodies of origin are in one gyrus; the axons arch under a sulcus and synapse in adjacent or semi-adjacent gyri
what is connected by the superior longitudinal fasciculus
primarily the cortex of frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes within the same hemisphere; a part of this pathway extends into the temporal lobe
fasciculus which connects all of the language areas of the dominant hemisphere
arcuate fasciculus
A lesion in the arcuate fasciculus results in ______
conduction aphasia
Conduction aphasia accounts for approximately ___ of aphasias
10%
connects occipital and temporal areas
Inferior longitudinal fasciculus
connects orbitofrontal gyri (areas involved primarily in emotional behavior) and rostral temporal lobe areas (involved in the processing of olfactory information)
uncinate fasciculus
The ______ is a common site of seizures
uncinate fasciculus
The cingulum connects areas of the ____ and ____lobes with structures in the temporal lobe
frontal
parietal
The cell bodies of origin of the cingulum are in the ____
cingulate gyrus
the cell bodies of origin are in one gyrus; the ____ arch under a sulcus and synapse in adjacent or semi-adjacent gyri as shown
arcuate fibers
inability to carry out verbal commands w/ moter fx, cause
apraxia, lesiaon of anterior corpus callosum
significantly larger in the brains of homosexual (compared to heterosexual) men
anterior commissure
Posterior commissure: located just rostral to the ___, near the ___
superior colliculus
pineal
fibers connecting cortical areas with nuclei throughout the brain
Projection fibers
most fibers coursing to and from the cortex go through the ____ which lies between the ___ and the ____ nucleus
internal capsule
thalamus
lentiform
three "capsules" or fiber bundles:
internal, external, or extreme capsules
the three major “limbs” of the internal capsule
anterior, genu, and posterior limbs
topographically organization of the internal capsule
pre-frontal lobe fibers course through the anterior limb; more posterior frontal lobe (see below), parietal, occipital, and temporal lobe fibers course through the posterior and retrolenticular limbs
fibers which course in the genu of the internal capsule
cortico-bulbar fibers
cell bodies of origin of the cortical-bulbar fibers Brodmann's areas
4 and 8
fibers which course thru the posterior limb of the internal capsule
cortico-spinal tract
Fibers of the anterior limb of the internal capsule are supplied primarily by branches of the _____ artery
anterior cerebral
The posterior limb, genu, and retrolenticular portion of the internal capsule are supplied primarily by the ______ branches of the _____ artery
lenticulo-striate
middle cerebral