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116 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Dualistic Approach
Mind and Body sepration
Psychological Approach
The mind is exlusively responsible
Biological Monolism
Biology is exclusively responsible
What are the three parts of the Brain.
Forebrain, Midbrain and Hindbrain
Neuropsychology
The branch of psychology that deals with the relationship between the nervous system, especially the brain, and cerebral or mental functions such as language, memory, and perception.
Glial Cells
Continue to divide and multiply. They carry out many important functions for normal brain function, including insulating nerves cells with myelin.
Ectoderm
The embryonic tissue that is used to develop the nervous system.
How big is the brain? How much does the brain weigh?
The adult human brain weighs between 1300 g and 1400 g (approximately 3 lbs). A newborn human brain weighs between 350 and 400 g.
Central Nervous System
The central nervous system is divided into two parts: the brain and the spinal cord.
Cerebral Cortex
Functions:


Thought
Voluntary movement
Language
Reasoning
Perception
"cerebellum"
Functions:


Movement
Balance
Posture
Brain stem
Functions:


Breathing
Heart Rate
Blood Pressure
Hypothalamus
Functions:


Body Temperature
Emotions
Hunger
Thirst
Circadian Rhythms
Thalamus
Functions:


Sensory processing
Movement
Limbic System
Functions:


Emotions
Hippocampus
Functions:


Learning
Memory
Basal Ganglia
Functions:


Movement
Midbrain
Functions:


Vision
Audition
Eye Movement
Body Movement
One way to divide the brain
Telencephalon
Diencephalon
Mesencephalon
Metencephalon
FRONTAL LOBE
Located in front of the central sulcus.
Concerned with reasoning, planning, parts of speech and movement (motor cortex), emotions, and problem-solving.
PARIETAL LOBE
Located behind the central sulcus.
Concerned with perception of stimuli related to touch, pressure, temperature and pain
TEMPORAL LOBE
Located below the lateral fissure.
Concerned with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli (hearing) and memory (hippocampus).
OCCIPITAL LOBE
Located at the back of the brain, behind the parietal lobe and temporal lobe.
Concerned with many aspects of vision.
Prefrontal Cortex
Problem Solving, Emotion, Complex Thought
Motor Association Cortex
Coordination of complex movement
Primary Motor Cortex
Initiation of voluntary movement
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
Receives tactile information from the body
Sensory Association Area
Processing of multisensory information
Visual Association Area
Complex processing of visual information
Visual Cortex
Detection of simple visual stimuli
Wernicke's Area
Language comprehension
Auditory Association Area
Complex processing of auditory information
Auditory Cortex
Detection of sound quality (loudness, tone)
Speech Center
(Broca's Area)
Speech production and articulation
Dorsal view
Means on top. Looking from above as well as behind
To separate the brain into right and left hemispheres, you need to cut the brain in the
"midsagittal plane".
Ventral view
Consider below or in front therefore you can say that x structure is ventral to y structure
Lateral view
To look at the brain on the side therefore you can see Fontral lobe, Central lobe, and Partial lobe.
Coronal section
take a cut right smack between the two ears
The CSF has several functions including:
Protection: the CSF protects the brain from damage by "buffering" the brain. In other words, the CSF acts to cushion a blow to the head and lessen the impact.
Buoyancy: because the brain is immersed in fluid, the net weight of the brain is reduced from about 1,400 gm to about 50 gm. Therefore, pressure at the base of the brain is reduced.
Excretion of waste products: the one-way flow from the CSF to the blood takes potentially harmful metabolites, drugs and other substances away from the brain.
Endocrine medium for the brain: the CSF serves to transport hormones to other areas of the brain. Hormones released into the CSF can be carried to remote sites of the brain where they may act.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
The CSF is contained within a system of fluid-filled cavities called ventricles.
Ventricles
Irrigation system of the brain are filled with CSF.
Hydrocephalus
Under some pathological conditions, CSF builds up within the ventricles. This condition is called hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus may result from:

Overproduction of CSF
An obstruction at some point within the ventricular system
Problems with CSF absorption
The names of the cranial nerves
On Old Olympus Towering Top A Famous Vocal German Viewed Some Hops.olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, spinal accessory, hypoglossal
The Blood Supply of the Brain
Although the brain is only about 2% of the total body weight in humans, it receives 15-20% of the body's blood supply. Because brain cells will die if the supply of blood which carries oxygen is stopped, the brain has top priority for the blood. Even if other organs need blood, the body attempts to supply the brain with a constant flow of blood.
neuron
a cell body called the soma which is like a central processing facility, a long thin projection called an axon which transmits signals and a branching collection of short finger-like projections called dendrites which receive the signals.
Inside the neurons
the signals move as electrical impulses
Synapse between two neurons
the signals that are transfered are through chemical reactions
how fast does a message from a neuron travel
Messages travel at different speeds depending on the type of neuron
synaptic transmission
requiring about half a millisecond each
Synapse
seperates dendrites and axons
Cell
Golgi body, microfilaments, lysosomes, nucleus, endoplasmic reticular, mitochondrion, microtubules
Intra & Extra cellular fluid
is composed of water molecules that are polar - one negatively charged and the other is positively charged.
Which molecules can pass through cell membrane?
Oxygen
Myelin
Myelin coats and insulates the axon (except for periodic breaks called nodes of Ranvier), increasing transmission speed along the axon.
cell body (soma)
contains the neuron's nucleus (with DNA and typical nuclear organelles).
Glial cells
make up 90 percent of the brain's cells. Glial cells are nerve cells that don't carry nerve impulses. The various glial (meaning "glue") cells perform many important functions, including: digestion of parts of dead neurons, manufacturing myelin for neurons, providing physical and nutritional support for neurons, and more. Types of glial cells include Schwann's Cells, Satellite Cells, Microglia, Oligodendroglia, and Astroglia.
Into Brain
Oxygen
Carbohydrates
Amino Acids
Fats
Hormones
Vitamins
Out of Brain
Carbon Dioxide
Ammonia
Lactate
Hormones
Layers of the Brain
Skull
Dura Mater
Arachnoid Layer
Pia mater
Subarachnoid space filled with CFS
Neuron
Golgi body: packages protein molecules for transport
Microfilaments cell's skeleton
Lyosomes enzymes that break down wastes
Nuclues: executive containing chromosomes and genes
Endoplasmic reticulum: folded layers of membrane where proteins are assembled
Michondrion: gathers, stores and releases energy
Microtubules transport molecules and help give the cell its shape
intra and extracellular fluids
composed mainly of water in which salt and many other chemicals are dissolved
What contains the blue print for making proteins
Nucleus
Blue print
genes
Chromosones
giant molecular complexes which contain genes
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid consisitng of four nucleotide bases
Four nucleotide bases
1. Adenine (A)
and
2. Thymine (T)
= bind
3. Guanine (G)
and
4. Cytosine (C)
= Bind
Gene
Segment of DNA that encodes the synthesis of particular type of protein molecule
Code
contains the sequence of nucleotides bases that direct the order in which amino acids (building blocks of protein) should be assembled to construct a particular type of protein.
Transcription
the transfer of genetic information from DNA into RNA. In case of protein-encoding DNA, transcription is the beginning of the process that ultimately leads to the translation of the genetic code into a funtional peptide or protein.
Translation
formation of amino-acid chains which occurs in the endoplasmic

DNA---RNA----Protein
What mechanism enable substance to move in and out of the cells?
Protein act as:
1. Channels (e.g. K+)
2. Gates (NA+)
3. Transportation system
restomg membrane potential
-70mV
Hyperpolarization
efflux of K+ ---- extracellular side of the membrane is more positive
Depolarization
influx of Na+ channels
Action potential
brief but extremely large change in polarity of an axon's membrane lasting about 1ms
threshold potential
electrical stimulation causes graded potential that causes the membrane potential to drop to -50mV
Absolute Refractory period
stimulation during depolarization or repolarization phases will not cause a new action potential
Saltatory conductionspeeds up conduction velocity
Saltatory conduction
neurotransmitter release from the pre-synaptic gap depends on two factors
1. Amount of Ca+ the enters the axon terminal in response to the action potential.
2. the number of vesicles that are docked at the membrane waitng to be released.
Deactivation of the neurotransmitters
1. Diffusion from the synapse.
2. Enzymes in the synaptic gap de-activate the neurotransmitter.
3. Enzyme facilitate the re-absorption of the neuro transmitter into the axon for further use.
4. Neighboring glial cells absorb some of the neurotransmitters.
CHOLINERGIC-SYSTEM
The system of nerve cells that uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter, nerve cells in the cholinergic system are damaged in the brains of Alzheimer patients.
adrenergic system
That system of organs and nerves in which catecholamines are the neurotransmitters.

All the nerve cells for which epinephrine and norepinephrine (and more broadly, other monoamines, dopamine, and serotonin) are the transmitter substances, as opposed to the cholinergic system, which consists of the nerve cells activated by acetylcholine.
Dopaminergic pathways
1. The neurons of the dopaminergic pathways have axons which run the entire length of the pathway. The neuron's soma produces the dopamine, which is then transmitted via the projecting axons to their synaptic destinations.
2.are neural pathways in the brain which transmit the neurotransmitter dopamine from one region of the brain to another.
serotonergic system
The system of nerve cells that uses serotonin as their neurotransmitter.
The three part division of the brain
Forbrain
brainstem
spinal cord
monists
that the mind and the body are simply two words for the same thing and the both are either material or non material
pyramidal cortex (corticospinal pathway)
leads from the cortex to the spinal cord, suggesting that the cortex sends intructions to the spinal cord to command movement of the muscle
anterior
Objects near the front are
posterior
those near the rear are
Ipsilateral
means on the same side
contralateral
means on the other side
sagittal
plane divides the body into left and right portions
pyramidal cell
is a type of a neuron. Pyramidal cells constititute the majority of the cells in the cerebral cortex. They are called pyramidal because the shape of their cell body (soma) is pyramid-like.

Pyramidal cells have large dendrite trees, with typically a few thousand synapses. They also have relatively long axons, with similar number of synapses. Thus they constitute the main processing power of the cortex.
corpus callosum
The corpus callosum connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres
localization of function
Gall dev a general theory of how the brain might produce differences in individual abilities inot a theory of brain function
phrenology
Spurzheim called the study of the relation between the skull's surface features and a person's faculties
phernological map
the relation bet brain function and the skull surface.
Pierre Flourens (1794-1867)
to eat and drink difference areas of cortex had specialized function.
Found cerebellum coordinated locomotion
Broca (1824-1880)
located speech in third convolution (gyrus) of the frontal lobe on the left side of the brain
1.) language was localized to a side of the brain-lateralization
2.) language was localized
3.) left hemiphere-dominant hemisphere- special role in laguage.
Aphasia
is a loss or impairment of the ability to produce and/or comprehend language, due to brain damage.
Apraxia
is a neurological disorder characterized by loss of the ability to execute or carry out learned (familiar) movements, despite having the desire and the physical ability to perform the movements.
Wernicke
finding that the temporal lobe also was implicated in language disproved the strict localization view that language was localized to a part of the frontal lobe.
Alexia
or word blindness, is an acquired type of sensory aphasia where damage to the brain causes a patient to lose the ability to read. It is also called text blindness, or visual aphasia.
praxis
inability to make sequences of movements
Hughling-Jackson (1835-1911)
Hierarchical organization
Forebrain
Brainstem
Spinal cord
Neuron hypothesis
nervous system is composed of discrete, autonomous units or
study of non human species
* studies directed toward understand the basic mechanism of the brain
*studies designed to produce models of human neurological disorders
*studies designed to produce models of human neurological disorders
*studies that aim to describe evolutionary dev of the brain
gray matter
can be understood as the *parts of the brain responsible for information processing
*It forms the superficial parts of the brain and the deep parts of the spinal cord
White matter
*can be understood as the parts of the brain and spinal cord responsible for information transmission
*White matter forms the bulk of the deep parts of the brain
nucleus
a well-defined group of cell bodies
tract/fiber pathway
a large collection of axons projecting to or away from a nucleus or layer
nerves
the fiber and fiber pathway that enter and leave the central nervous system
superio/dorsal
above
frontal lobe
central sulcus
parietal lobe
longitudinel fissure
occipital lobe
Medial (midsagittal section)
to the inside
frontal lobe
central sulcus
parietal lobe
occipital lobe
temperoal lobe
brainstem
cerrebellum
Occipatal Lobe
because of distinct stripes the visual cortex is sometimes called the striate cortex