Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/119

Click to flip

119 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
adrenal cortex
The outer layer of the adrenal gland; it releases hormones that regulate energy, metabolism, mineral balance, and reproductive behavior
location
function
brain
The part of the central nervous system that is located in the skull.
location
central nervous system
The part of the vertebrate nervous system that is located within the skull and spine.
location
cervical region
The section of the spine that provides the flexible framework of the name or cervix.
function
dorsal roots
The 31 pairs of sensory nerves that enter the spinal cord; they enter the spinal cord's dorsal surface
location
gonads
The sex glands (ovaries and testes) release hormones that influence the development of female and male reproductive systems and the reproductive behavior of adults.
hypothalmus
The brain structure from which the pituitary is suspended; it secretes releasing hormones, which stimulate the release of tropic hormones from the pituitary
location
lumbar region
The section of the spine that supports the small of the back
location
parasympathetic nervous system
one of the two motor divisions of the autonomic nervous system; it tends to conserve energy during periods of quiescence; parasympathetic nerves project from the brain and from the sacral region of the spinal cord
function
peripheral nervous system
The part of the vertebrate nervous system that is located outsided the skull and spine
location
pituitary gland
The gland that hangs from the hypothalamus; because it releases tropic hormones, it is often referred to as the master gland.
location
function
sacral region
The section of the spine to which the bones of the pelvis are attached
location
spinal cord
The part of the central nervous system tht is located in the spine
location
spinal gray matter
The H shaped area of gray nervous tissue in the core of the spinal cord.
location
Spinal white matter
The area of white nervous tissue in the spinal cord; it surrounds the spinal gray matter
location
sympathetic nervous system
One of the two motor divisions of the autonomic nervous system; it tends to mobilize energy resources during period of threat; sympathetic nerves project from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord
function
location
thoracic region
The section of the spine to which the ribs are attached.
LOCATION
ventral roots
The 31 pairs of motor nerves that exit the spinal cord; they project from the spinal cord's ventral surface
location
anterior
toward the nose end; also known as rostral
location
contralateral
from or to the opposite side of the body
location
coronal sections
slices of the brain that are cut in a coronal or frontal plane, that is, cut approximately parallel to the surface of the face
location
cross sections
sections that are cut at right angles to the long axis of any long narrow structure, for example, at right angles to the long axis of the spinal cord
location
dorsal
toward the surface of the back or top of the head
location
horizontal sections
slices of the brain that are cut in a horizontal plane,that is, cut parallel to the horizon when the subject is in an upright position.
location
inferior
Toward the ventral surface of the primate head
location
ipsilateral
from or to the same side of the body
location
lateral
away from the midsagittal plane; toward the left or right
location
medial
toward the midsagittal plane
location
midsagittal section
A sagittal section that is cut from the very midline of the brain
location
superior
toward the dorsal surface of the primate head
location
unilateral
on one side of the body
location
ventral
toward the surface of the chest and stomach or bottom of the head
location
anterior commissure
The commissure that is located just inferior to the anterior tip of the corpus callosum; a major role of communication between the left and right temporal lobes
location
function
arachnoid membrane
The middle menynx; it has the texture of a gauze-like spider web
texture
brain stem
The central neural stem on which the two cerebral hemispheres sit; many brain stem structures play key roles in the regulation of body's inner development
location
function
central canal
The narrow channel that connects the third and fourth ventricles; most of it is located in the mesencephalon
function
location
cerebral aqueduct
The two large neural structures that sit atop the vertebrate brain stem, one on the left and one of the right; they mediate complex psychological processes.
location
function
corpus callosum
by far the largest cerebral commissure; it is composed of about 200 million axons
composition
diencephalon
The region of the brain between the telencephalon and the mesencephalon; one of the two divisions of the forebrain (the other is the telencephalon); the most anterior region of the brain stem
location
dura mater
the outermost and toughest of the three meninges
lateral ventricles
The ventricles of the left and right cerebral hemispheres; they are the largest of the four cerebral ventricles
longitudinal fissure
The deep midline chasm between the two cerebral hemispheres
massa intermedia
The commissure that is located in the middle of the third ventricle; it is a route of communication between the left and right diencephalon, which is largely separated by the third ventricle
mesencephalon
The midbrain; the region of the brain stem between the diencephalon and the metencepahlon
myelencephalon
the most posterior region of the brain; the area of the brain stem between the metencephalon and the spinal cord; one of the two divisions of the hindbrain (the other is the metencephalon).
nerves
structures of the PNS that are composed largely of axons; their function is to conduct action potentials from one part of the PNS to another
function
olfactory nerves
the first pair of cranial nerves; they carry sensory signals from the olfactory receptors of the nose to the brain
function
optic nerves
the second pair of cranial nerves; they carry sensory signals from the visual receptors of the eyes to the brain
pia mater
the innermost and most delicate of the three meninges; it adheres to the surface of the CNS
subarachnoid space
the space between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater; it contains cerebrospinal fluid, the web-like processes of the arachnoid layer, and many blood vessels
pia mater
the innermost and most delicate of the three meninges; it adheres to the surface of the CNS
telencepahlon
the cerebral hemispheres; one of the two divisions of the forebrain (the other is the diencephalon)
third ventricle
The central ventricle of the diencephalon; it is a verical sheet-shaped chamber that lies along the midline
tracts
structures of the CNS that are composed largely of axons; their function is to conduct action potentials from one part of the CNS to another
trigeminal nerves
the fifth pair of crainal nerves, each of which has three major branches; they conduct motor signals from the brain to the muscles involved in chewing; and the sensory signals from the same muscles and from other parts of the face to the brain
vagus nerves
the tenth and longest pair of cranial nerves; they conduct signas to and from the organs of the gut (e.g., to and from the heart, liver and stomach)
vestibulocochlear nerves
The eighth pair of cranial nerves, which carry sensory signals from the inner ear to brain; one branch carries sensory signals from the organs of balance (i.e., from the vestibular organs). and the other branch carries sensory signals from the organs of hearing (i.e., from the cochlea)
cerebrospinal hemispheres
the fluid that fills both the subarachnoid space and the hollow core of the brain and spinal cord; it supports, nourishes, and cushions the central nervous system
location
function
metencephalon
The region of the brain stem between the mesencephalon and the myencephalon; one of the two divisions of the hindbrain (the other is the myelencephalon)
adrenal medulla
The core of the adrenal gland; it is activated by the sympathetic nervous system, and in turn it secretes hormones whose effects are similar to those of the sympathetic nervous system.
location
function
autonomic nervous system
The division of the peripheral nervous system that participates in the regulation of the body's internal environment; it conducts sensory signals to the CNS from receptors in internal organs, and motor signals from the CNS back to the same internal organs.
function
bilateral
on both sides of the body
location
ganglia
structure of the PNS that are composed largely of neural cell bodies; their function is the local analysis of neural signals (singular: ganglion)
fourth ventricle
the cerebral ventricle of the metencephalon; it connects the cerebral aqueduct and the central canal
nuclei
structures of the CNS that are composed largely of neural cell bodies; their function is the local analysis of neural signals (singular:nucleus)
posterior
toward the tail end; also known as caudal
location
sagittal sections
slices of the brain that are cut in a sagittal plane, that is, cut parallel to the vertical plane that divides the brain into left and right halves.
location
somatic nervous system
The division of the peripheral nervous system that interacts with the external environment; it conducts sensory signals to the CNS from external receptors and receptors in joints and skeletal muscles, and it conducts motor signals from the CNS to skeletal muscles
function
aggregation
The stage of neural development during which developing neurons align themselves to form the specific structures of the brain.
Blueprint theory
The theory that axons grow to their correct targets because they are programmed to follow specific trails through the developing nervous system
chemoaffinity theory
The theory that axons grow to their correct targets because they are programmed to follow to their source specific chemical signals released by their target cells.
dienchephalon
The posterior division of the forebrain; the area of the bain between the telencephalon and the mesencephalon.
Forebrain
The most anterior of the three swellings that appear at the anterior end of the developing vertebrate neural tube; the prosencephalon.
Growth cone
The amoeba-like structure at the growing tip of each axon and dendrite; growth cones direc the growth of axons and dendrites to appropriate targets.
Hindbrain
The most posterior of the three swellings that appear at the antior end of the developing vertebrate neural tube; the rhombencephalon.
Mesencephalon
The midbrain; the division of the brain between the diencephalon and the metencephalon.
Metencephalon
The anterior division of the hindbrain; the area of the brain between the mesencephalon and the myelencephalon.
Midbrain
The middle swelling of the three that appear at the anterior end of the developing vertebrate neural tube; the mesencephalon.
Migration
The stage of neural develoopment during which newly created neurons migrate outward from the region of cell division to appropriate locations in the developing neural tube.
Myelencephalon
The most posterior of the brain's five divisions; the area of the brain between the metencephalon and the spinal cord.
Myelination
The stage of neuron development during which many axons become myelinated by glial cells.
Neural crest
The vertebrate embryonic structure that is located just doral and lateral to the neural tube; it is formed from neural plate cells that break away as the neural tube is being formed; the neural crest develops into the PNS.
Neural groove
The groove that develops down the center of the neural plate.
Neural plate
The patch of tissue on the dorsal surface of the vertebrate embryo that develoops into the nervous system; in human embryos, it is first visible about 18 days following conception.
Neural tube
The fluid-filled tube that is formed in the vertebrate embryo when the lips of the neural groove fue; the neural tube develops into the CNS.
Neuron death
The stage of early nervous system development during which large numbers of neurons die, typically those that have not established effective synaptic contacts.
Process growth and synapse formation
The stage of neural development during which axons and dendrites grow and establish synaptic contacts.
Radial glial cells
The temporary network of glial cells that exists in the developing neural tube only during the period of neuron migration; migrating neurons travel outward along this glial network.
Telencephalon
The most anterior of the brain's five divisions; the anterior division of the forebrain.
Auditory nerve
The nerve that carries signals from each cochlea to the ipsilateral cochlear nuclei; a component of the vestibulocochlear nerve (ie., of the eighth cranial nerve).
Auditory radiations
The ipsilateral projections from the medial geniculate nuclei to the primary auditory cortex.
Cochlea
The coiled, snail-like inner ear structure that contains the auditory receptors.
cochlear nuclei
The two pairs of medullary nuclei, two on the left and two on the right, that receive ipsilateral input from the auditory nerves.
Dorsal column nuclei
Two pairs of nuclei,k two on the left and two on the right, in the dorsal meduall (i.e., nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus); they receive ipsilateral somatosensory input via the ascending dorsal columns.
Dorsal columns
The somatosensory tracts, left and right, that ascend in the dorsal spinal cord; they are composed of the axons of sensory neurons carrying information about touch and proprioception from the ipsilateral receptors.
Heschl's gyrus
A superior temporal lobe gyrus that is located in the lateral fissure of each hemisphere; it is the location of most of the primary auditory cortex.
Inferior colliculi
The two nuclei of the tectum, one left and one right, that receive auditory input via the lateral lemnisci (singular; colliculus).
Inferotemporal cortex
The cortex of the inferior temporal lobes; the inferotemporal cortex of each hemisphere contains several different functional areas of secondary visual cortex, each of whch plays a role in the visual recognition of objects.
Lateral geniculate nuclei
The thalamic nuclei that relay visual information from the optic tracts to the ipsilateral primary visual cortex via the optic radiations.
Medial geniculate nuclei
The two auditory relay nuclei of the thalamus, one left and one right; their projections terminate in the ipsilateral primary auditory cortex.
Medil lemnisci
Two somatosensory tracts that ascend from the medulla to the thalamus; each ascends from dorsal column nuclei and decussates to the contralateral ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus (singular: lemniscus).
Optic chiasm
The X-shaped midline structure on the inferior surface of the hypothalamus; the retinal ganglion cell axons originating in the medial hemiretinas decussate via the optic chiasm.
Optic nerve
The bundles of retinal ganglion cell axons that leave each eyeball; the second cranial nerves.
Optic radiations
The diffuse neural pathways from each lateral geniculate nucleus to the primary visual cortex of the same hemisphere.
Optic tracts
The tracts, left and right, that project from the optic chiasm to the lateral geniculate nuclei; they are composed of the axons of retinal ganglion cells.
periaqueductal gray
The area of mesencephalic gray matter that surrounds the cerebral aqueduct; neurons of the PAG are excited by endorphins and by opiate analgesics.
Posterior parietal cortex
The area of association cortex in the posterior parietal lobe of each hemisphere; it receives input from visual, auditory, and somatosensory systems and plays a role in the perception of location and motion.
Prestriate cortex
The areas of cerebral cortex, one in each hemisphere, that surround primary visual cortex; the prestriate cortex o each hemisphere contains several different functional areas of secondary visual cortex.
Primary auditory cortex
The areas of cortex, one left and one right, that receive most of their input from the medial geniculate neucli of the thalamus; most of the primary auditory cortex is located in Heschl's gyrus.
Primary visual cortex
The areas of occipital cortex, one left and one right, that receive most of their input from the lateral geniculate nuclei of the thalamus; also referred to as striate cortex.
Primary somatosensory cortex
The ares of the cerbral cortex that receive somatosensory input from the thalamus, largely from the ventral posterior nuclei; primary somatosensory cortex is located in the postcentral gyrus of each hemisphere.
Raphne nuclei
The thin vertical sheet of serotonergic nuclei that is located along the midline of the reticular formation.
Retina
The five-layered neural structure that lines the back of eahc eyeball; the furthest retinal layer from the pupil contains the visual receptors, and the closest contains the retinal ganglion cells.
Secondary auditory cortex
The areas of auditory cortex in each hemisphere that receive most of their input from primary auditory cortex; they are located in the superior temporal lobes.
Secondary somatosensory cortex
The areas of cortex in each hemisphere that receive most of their input from primary somatosensory cortex; they are located in the postcentral gyri just inferior to primary somatosensory cortex.
Somatosensory homunulus
The somatotopic maps that constitute primary somatosensory cortex.
Superior olivary nuclei
The two pairs of medullary nuclei, two on the left and two on the right, that receive bilateral auditory signals from the cochlear nuclei.
Trigeminal nuclei
The two medullary nuclei, left and right, that receive somatosensory input from the ipsilateral half of the face via the trigeminal nerves.
Ventral posterior nuclei
The thalamic nuclei, left and right, that relay somatosensory information from the medial lemnisci to the ipsilateral primary somatosensory cortex.