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129 Cards in this Set

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cognitive neuropsych
-specific focus is on mental functions to neural processes
-studeis on animals/humans
-labratory/computer stimulations, not guranteed to show the way the brain works-only theories
-more specific-knock out certain parts in the rats brain
neuropsychology
-linking brain functions to human mental processes
-inferred from observation
-generalized-->diffuse damage, theories more general
glia cells
"support cells" outnumber neurons 10 to 1
-influence communication of neurons
-aid in developmental organization
-reorganization after brain damage
-remove dead neurons
-conduit to transfer nutrients to neurons
cerebellum
balance, coordination, one of the last regions in the brain to mature, connections made bw cerebellum and frontal are last to form
connections bw frontal & cerebellum-cerebellum is moer automatic, whlie frontal is intentional
cerebellum and timing
coordination=motor timing issues, important in sports, driving , language, production when to start/stop social timing-interruption
frontal lobe divisions
dorsolateral, orbital, medial
dorsolateral
memory/attention
orbital
emotional processing
medial
judgements, decisons, detections of errors
equipotentiality vs. localization of function
is the brain one system or made up of parts. damage to one part in the system could potentially have little impact. , sometimes tiny damage to on epart pf brain can have great consqu.
phineas gage
ventromedial (ventro=bottom of brain) ofc region-regioin responsible for decision making regarding personal/social matters, as well as emotional processing, damage to this area wul dlead to addictions and hoarding
epileptic siezures/corpus callosum
R visual field-L Hemisphere
L visual field-R Hemisphere
-only see with R hemisphere you can still maintain facial recognition, but
-only see with L hemisphere faces were made of fruit, could only focus on elements that made up face and not the face itself
hemisphere specialization
R-facial, spatial, nonverbal, global process, consolidates the world
L-languagel, details and specifics
drawing pics upside down
you dont think about the signature or picture as a whole, don't use brain's motor plan for writing the letter, ocus more on what you see, drawing with the R hemi
RH damage
letters only processed by L hemisphere. so only take in the details that make up the whole of the letter
LH damage
only processed by R, whole letter- no indication of the detail but the letter in a straight line.
left handedness and learning disblaed
among learning disabled greater disbaled are L handed, not other way around (70% LH)
american way of looking at brain
L R
soviet way of looking at brain
anterior/posterior (front/back)
simultaneous processing
all pieces are processed together-putting puzzle together-integration
sequential processing
piece by piece, move onto next piece, not concerned wit hpiece before.
RH disorder (non verbal impairments)
by 4th 5th grade, seem lazy, sloppy difficult for child to organize words into essay. can articulte readig more difficult
Lesion Method
region associated with behavior-damage to a certain region results in behavior impairment
-->led away from a mass action perspective towards a localization of function-subsystem perspective f bain
-study method with humans and animals
mass action
global, diffuse system, all areas of brain required for functioning
regional focused patients
milners epilipsy studies, areas within brain associated with memory (temporal/hippo)
functional focus patients
patients with neglct (diffuse association) no awareness/attention to a certain region.
difficulties with brain damage lesion method
-not precise
-heterogenous sample
-patients wihth many backgrounds
-nature of injury
-injury t oassociated areas
-studying deficient brain, damage to parts
localized function vs. disconnection syndrome
is th edysfunction associated with the damaged region or with a disconnect from the functional system-frontal lobe-system without a leader, damaged frontal lobe or damaged sysetm? teachniques for studying this....
anatomical structures
CAT, MRI
physiological function-
function-consumption of O2 (equivalent to brain activity), glucose, neurotransmitter concentration, electrical activity..PET, fMRI
electromagnetic
EEG, ERP-electrical signals
CAT-computerized axial tomography
x ray, inexpensive, safe, widespread
detection of density
dense=white
bone (white)
blood (grey)
brainstem (dark grey)
csf (black)
areas damaged longer ago are black
MRI
use of magnetic fields, not radiation, superior spatial resolution over cat
magnetic gradeint field
PET
functional analogous to CAT
-radiation emetting substance to bloos, blood goes to actovity, radiactive substance breaks down releases gamma rays detected in flow
-accurate localization, but not precise.
-radioactive agent determines info about glucose metabloic activity
functional MRI
-physical change=mental function
-cerebral blood flow & blood oxygenation
-neurons fire-oxygen delivered to the area, oxygen magnetic properties detected,oxygenated blood indicates activity-deoxygenated blood and oxygenta ed blood has different magnetic properties more precise then PET, but not as good with nt
neuropsychology clinical assessment offers...
fixed/costumized battery tests
-behavior/personality scales
-tests of attention/memory
-iq skills (perceptual reasoning, verbal reasoning, working memory. processing speed)
customized battery
like clinical interview-tets relative to concerns
fixed batteries
like structured interview, same tests
differential diagnosis- function not structure
-specific processing deficits characteristic of
alzheim vs. vascular dementia
language based LD vs nonverbal LD
-identify strengths and weaknesses-tailored approach
-prognosis & expectations
-measure baseline function-initial state of skills-what to expect of person
-gains vs. deterioration-age of person, how they will end up in a few years
fixed battery tests
halstead-reitan
luria-nebraska
halstead reian
cast a wide net to detect brain dysfunction of either neurological or psychiatric origin, detects functioning in different sensory modalities, many different domains -spatial motor, language, abstract reasoning
luria nebraska
wide range of tests that map against alexander lurias theory of the functional organization of th ebrain
stimulis bound behavior
see pen use pen, see stain rub stain , hand out shake hand, questionable behaviors within evaluations are what should be tested
scientific method
theory-test hypothesis to support or refute theories, way you think, understand what other peopl ethink-must always test hypothesis, cannot assume hypothesis is the answer
1)brainstem
energy, arousal, tone
arousal-not lethargic, daily functioning high when phsyiological kicks in
-reticular formation-damage-loss of selectivity among stimuli-a weakened cortex has about the same reaction to insig, weak stimulias it does to strong stimulus
-clueless, deranged-no arousal-unconscious, asleep, don't pay attention to things in front of you, memory trace becomes disorganized
neuropsychology clinical assessment offers...
fixed/costumized battery tests
-behavior/personality scales
-tests of attention/memory
-iq skills (perceptual reasoning, verbal reasoning, working memory. processing speed)
customized battery
like clinical interview-tets relative to concerns
fixed batteries
like structured interview, same tests
differential diagnosis- function not structure
-specific processing deficits characteristic of
alzheim vs. vascular dementia
language based LD vs nonverbal LD
-identify strengths and weaknesses-tailored approach
-prognosis & expectations
-measure baseline function-initial state of skills-what to expect of person
-gains vs. deterioration-age of person, how they will end up in a few years
fixed battery tests
halstead-reitan
luria-nebraska
halstead reian
cast a wide net to detect brain dysfunction of either neurological or psychiatric origin, detects functioning in different sensory modalities, many different domains -spatial motor, language, abstract reasoning
luria nebraska
wide range of tests that map against alexander lurias theory of the functional organization of th ebrain
stimulis bound behavior
see pen use pen, see stain rub stain , hand out shake hand, questionable behaviors within evaluations are what should be tested
scientific method
theory-test hypothesis to support or refute theories, way you think, understand what other peopl ethink-must always test hypothesis, cannot assume hypothesis is the answer
1)brainstem
energy, arousal, tone
arousal-not lethargic, daily functioning high when phsyiological kicks in
-reticular formation-damage-loss of selectivity among stimuli-a weakened cortex has about the same reaction to insig, weak stimulias it does to strong stimulus
-clueless, deranged-no arousal-unconscious, asleep, don't pay attention to things in front of you, memory trace becomes disorganized
neuropsychology clinical assessment offers...
fixed/costumized battery tests
-behavior/personality scales
-tests of attention/memory
-iq skills (perceptual reasoning, verbal reasoning, working memory. processing speed)
customized battery
like clinical interview-tets relative to concerns
fixed batteries
like structured interview, same tests
differential diagnosis- function not structure
-specific processing deficits characteristic of
alzheim vs. vascular dementia
language based LD vs nonverbal LD
-identify strengths and weaknesses-tailored approach
-prognosis & expectations
-measure baseline function-initial state of skills-what to expect of person
-gains vs. deterioration-age of person, how they will end up in a few years
fixed battery tests
halstead-reitan
luria-nebraska
halstead reian
cast a wide net to detect brain dysfunction of either neurological or psychiatric origin, detects functioning in different sensory modalities, many different domains -spatial motor, language, abstract reasoning
luria nebraska
wide range of tests that map against alexander lurias theory of the functional organization of th ebrain
stimulis bound behavior
see pen use pen, see stain rub stain , hand out shake hand, questionable behaviors within evaluations are what should be tested
scientific method
theory-test hypothesis to support or refute theories, way you think, understand what other peopl ethink-must always test hypothesis, cannot assume hypothesis is the answer
1)brainstem
energy, arousal, tone
arousal-not lethargic, daily functioning high when phsyiological kicks in
-reticular formation-damage-loss of selectivity among stimuli-a weakened cortex has about the same reaction to insig, weak stimulias it does to strong stimulus
-clueless, deranged-no arousal-unconscious, asleep, don't pay attention to things in front of you, memory trace becomes disorganized
primary
sorts and records sensory info
phonemes-smallest unit of sound, 4 in s-ch-oo-l
acoustic-takes in sensory info
for visual, just observations of color shape
seconday
as one word-define word-leads to disorganization of all behavioral processs that would normally respond to that particular stimuli
tertiary
info from various sources overlap-foundation for organization of behavior-integrate with other areas of braain-school visual images and mental
frontal (anterior)
forming intentions and programming behavior
-area in front of motor strip involved in motor control and programming to do motor skills, motor program wired into brain-picking up cup of coffee.
-2nd unit involved when doing a task for the first time-more direct route for behavior that is already wired
damage=less likley able to to do intentioned/programmed behavior-not automatic
posterior (parietal (cutaneous/kinesthetic) temporal (auditory), occipital
analysis, coding and storing of info
divided into three zones
SEE above fuck my computer!
motor unit
motor neuron-neuromuscular junction-muscle fiber
motor tracts or pathways
corticospinal, corticobulbar, ventromedial, rubrospinal
corticospinal
cortex--->spinal cord
-skilled/voluntary movements
lateral tract-distal limb muscles (arms, legs, fingers, toes)
ventral tract-trunk, upper arms
corticobulbar
cortex-->pons/cranial nerves-assoc with face, tonue, vocal , breathing
facial movements
upper facial-ipsilateral & contralateral
lower facial-contralateral control
voluntary "higher level" human
-motor cortex-conntralateral facial nerves
-motor cortex-corpus callosum-opposite hemisphere (more direct route)
involuntary (spontaneous) "lower level"
basal ganglia-contralateral and ipsilateral hemisphere-red nucleus-facial nerves
ventromedial
brainstem nuclei (medulla, pons)--> spine (life functions)
-posture (head/trunk)
-eye movement (superior calliculus)
-gross trunk/leg movements (walking)
-autonommic functions (sneezing, muscle tone, breathing)
rubrospinal
cerebellum and motor cortex---> midbrain
cerebellum
looping connections wit hother regions
-modulation, not initiation of movements-control not initiation
-ipsilateral control
-subregions match regional control...
midline cerebellum-trunk/speech
lateral cerebellum-distal structures
vermis (midline) of cerebellum
-receives from spinal cord-->movement and sensation
-projects (descending) to influence ventromedial tract (posture)
-damage=posture/walking defects
intermediate zone
damage=rigid limbs, intention tremors (move hand intentionally with shakiness) shaky movements towards a target, but not shacky at rest
-receives from motor cortex (viaa red nucleus) and somatsosensory info from spine)
-projects (descending) back to red nucleus
association fibers
tertiary zone, integration of different regions and lobes present in th elateral zone of the cerebellum
lateral zone
association fibers, projects ascedning back to primary and premotor cortex via red n ucleus and ventrolateral thalamus
damage to the lateral zone
overshooting ballistic movements
-decomposistion of multi-loint coordination
-impaired sensorimotor learning (old paths intact-competes with old learning-new learning hard to take place, competes iwth ol dpath still in place-like getting ne wglasses
-cognitive timing
basal ganglia
-collection of subcortical structures that form a loop wit hcortical regions and act as a crossroad for motor control, ssyetmatic connectiosn occur bc of basal gangia
-associated with initiating and stopping movement
-internally driven(loops to frontal)
basal ganglia has a rol ein
-setting motor system (posture)
-preparig cns for voluntary actions-bg sets frontal lobe to move foward
-autopilotig, overlearned sequences
-supports planning and learning
damage to the bg in parkinsons
(not recieving dopamine input due to death of dopamine producing cells in the substantia nigra)leads to akinesia, bradykinesia, tremors
akinesia
inabillity to initiate spontaneous movement
bradykinesia
slowness of movement
tremors
rhythmic oscillating movements
damage to bg in huntingtons
(loss of neurons in th estriatum, reduction in gaba binding-loss of inhibitory control) hyperlinesia-jerky, twitching
athetosis-writing contractions twisting posture
linkage of movement to space/sensation/gestures
parietal regions
planning/preparing/initiating
premotor, supplemtal motor, frontal eyes fields
selecting responses and monitering
anterior cingulate
controlling force and direction
primarty motor
olfactory
smell
optic
vision
oculomotor
sensations from eye muscles, eye movements, pupil constriction
trochlear
sensations from eyes muscles, eye movements
trigeminal
sensations from skin of face, nose and mouth, chewing, swallowing
abducens
sensations from eye muscles, eye movements
facial
taste from anter 2/3 of tongue, visceral sensations from head, facial expressions, dilation of blood vessels in the head
statoacoustic
hearing, equilibrium
glossopharyngeal
taste and other sensations from throat and posterior third of tongue, swallowing, salivation, dilation of blood vessels
vagus
taste and sensations from neck, thorax and abdomen, swallowing, control of larynx, parasympathetic nerves to heart and viscera
accessory
movements of shoulders and head, parasympathetic nerves to viscera
hypoglossal
sensation from tongue muscles, movement of tongue
spinal cord
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral nerves
motor programs
representations (sum of movements) associated with a particular movement, chooing one thing primes you towards the selection of another step. working on step a while brain is already determining step b
coarticulation
same beginnng phoneme, but mouth is getting ready to say next sound. motor programs- representation to make new sound, so little thought, difficult to see difference (SIMULTANEOUS motor processing)
parietal regions
generate a mental model for movement
supplementary motor
abstract sequencing of steps
superior parietal
-interface b/w movement and sensory info (need integration bc cannot have feeling withot movement-vise versa)
proprioceptive and kinesthetic loop
proprioceptve
sensory info (body position) from receptors in body
kinesthetic
info regarding actual movement
somatosensory-premotor/primary
damage=lose ability to guide limbs-cant tell where our body is in space
inferior parietal
-contributes to complex, well learned motor acts
-gestures/pantomine (able to sho w how to brush teeth)
-damage=apraxia
connection between parietal and cerebellum
-parietal holds internal model
-cerebellum builds it-through combination of the repeated sensory info and associate physical movements
parkinsons
death of dopamine producing cells in sub nigra due to trauma, neural degeneration, toxins, encephalitis
parkinson tremors
tremors at rest-not intention tremor (intermediate cerebellum)
"cog wheel"
rigidity (extensor/flexor muscles)
akinesia
slowness in movement, parkisonian mask no gestures in face
distirbances in posture (drooping head, balance control)
what %
behaviors noticable when 60% of nerve cells and 80% dopamine cells lost-body/brain compensates when high % lost under these #s
compensate by
-dopamine increase from other centers that produce it
-decrease inactivation/clearance of dop in synaptic cleft-keep as much dopamine as possible-compensations are only temp, decline with age-brainnot as effective at compensating
treatment
-incraese dop/inhibit cholinergic receptors
-L Dopa (metabolic precursor of dopamine) but has major side effects (mood, personality, halucinations, delusions, memory, attention)
positive effects decrease over years
smoking cigs, caff, alcohol all reduce risks of prk
huntingtons
inherited, expressed at age 35-45, decreasing age of onset with each generation
-degeneration of striatum
-movement of yes hard to control
tourettes syndrome
inherited, childhood onset more males then females
-triangular assoc bw td/ocd/adhd
-vocal and motor twitches-like having an itch to scratch (repetitive and involuntary movements
compulsive nature
strong comorbid assoc to ocd
-urge to tic gets stronger then decreases after released
-basal ganglia assoc (compulsive and movement disorders)
apraxia
inability to preform a well learned motor skill despite having ability an dknowledge to preform it. disconnect between the command and action-involves parietal region (hgher level cortical involvement, not lower)