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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
One way pathway processing from top to bottom
Hierarchical processing
Info distributed to other motor units; more intricate motor control
Parallel Distributed Processing

ex. playing piano
Movement occurs at the junction of _____, _______, and ______.
perception, cognition, and action
The more motor units that fire, the _______ the contraction gets.
Neurons at rest have _____ electrical charge. (______ potential)

Neurons that are excited have ______ nerve impulses, or ______. (_______ potentials)


Neurons communicate through _______.
synaptic transmission
A lot of neurons coming together
preset synapses to fire; enabling; makes threshold easier to obtain

ex. thumping or rubbing muscle
synaptic facilitation
Increases threshold; takes more to reach threshold

ex. gently stroking muscle
defacilitation (habituation)
Used for broad area stimulus
spatial summation
increases number of presynaptic neurons stimulated
spatial summation
used for quick, pinpoint stimulus
temporal summation
repeated stimulus of same presynaptic neuron with stronger and stronger stimulus
temporal summation
Processing levels from lowest to highest
Spinal Cord



Diencephalon - Thalamus

Cerebral Hemispheres
- Cerebral Cortex
- Basal Ganglia
Spinal level has what
- Reflexes

- Basic flexion and extension movements such as kicking

- More hierarchical process

- Central Pattern Generators (CPG)
Brainstem has what
- Nuclei involved in postural control and locomotion
- vestibular nuclei, red nucleus, reticular nuclei

- Somatosensory input
- skin and muscles of head
- sensory input from vestibular and vision

- origination of all descending motor pathways EXCEPT corticospinal

- Arousal and awareness
Cerebellum has what
- Inputs from cord and cerebral cortex
- feedback about movements
- planning

- functions to adjust by comparing outcomes

- modulates force and ROM
- experience helps you determine force and ROM
Diencephalon has what
- Parallel relay port
- spinal cord, cerebellum, and brainstem information
Cerebral hemispheres have what
Basal Ganglia
- input from cortex through thalamus
- Higher level cognitive aspects of movement
- Planning motor strategies

Cerebral Cortex
- highest level
- parietal and premotor areas
- ID target in space, action, and program
These 3 systems make up postural control
1) somatosensory system

2) Visual

3) vestibular
Somatosensory system contains
- joints, muscles, and skin

(proprioception, kinesthesia)
GTO's are sensitive to _________
changes in muscle tension
GTO's control _________
force per unit length
2 types of Intrafusal muscle fibers
1) Nuclear bag fibers

2) Nuclear chain fibers
Slow twitch fibers are ____
nuclear bag fibers
Fast twitch fibers are _____
nuclear chain fibers
Extrafusal fibers
Regular muscle fibers
4 things about GTO
1) Sensitive to stretch or contraction

2) Inhibitory agonist; excitatory antagonist

3) Active during stance phase of gait - excites extensors and inhibit flexors

4) No CNS modulation
2 things about Joint receptors
1) Contributes to perception of position in space

2) Allows determination of exact joint position
Nociceptors are ______
Mechanoreceptors are ______
Thermoreceptors are ______
Touch and pressure

dorsal column and medial lemniscus system
pain and temperature

crude touch and pressure

spinothalamic, spinoreticular, and spinomesencephalic
Anterolateral system (ALS)
Hemi-section at cord level with loss of tactile sensation and proprioception on ipsilateral arm. Why?
Dorsal colum and medial lemniscus

It hasn't crossed yet.
Hemi-section at cord level with loss of pain and temperature on contralateral side. Why?

It crosses immediately in spinal cord
Major processing center of the brain
receives information from both ascending somatosensory tracts
receives information from other areas of the brain including basal ganglia and cerebellum
conscious awareness of somatosensation
primary and secondary somatosensory cortex
integrates info between body parts
area 5 parietal lobe
processed visual information

eye-limb coordination for visually guided activities
area 7 parietal lobe
Exteroceptive sense
- ID objects in space

- determining if environment is moving
Interoceptive sense
- "Internal sense"

- Position of body in space

- Relation of one body part to another

- Motion of body

- "visual proprioception"
2 parts of the visual system
1) Exteroceptive sense

2) Interoceptive sense
This plays a major role in adult balance, postural control, and locomotion
Visual system
_____ is our primary mechanism for response
Maintenance of postural stability during standing and walking
vestibular system
Important motor tasks of the cerebellum
- coordination of movement

- regulator of movement

- error detector

- motor learning
Non-motor tasks of the cerebellum
- cognition

- timing

- non-motor learning
3 primary functional areas of the cerebellum
- flocculonodular lobe
- controls axial muscles for balance

- vermis & intermediate hemispheres
- controls execution of movement
- modulates muscle tone
- Lesion symptoms: nystagmus, ataxic gait

- Lateral Hemispheres
- Preparation of movement
- timing of agonist & antagonist for ongoing movement
Basal ganglia does what
- functions in higher level processing of complex movement

- stimulation initiates locomotion and adjusts stepping movements

- control facilitation and inhibition of muscle tone for posture control

- control goal-directed movements

- lesion results in:
- dyskinesia
- akinesia
- slow movements
- disorders of postural tone and reflexes
3 parts of task
1) stability: BOS stationary

2) mobility: BOS moving

3) manipulation: increase speed/accuracy of task, increase postural demands
3 parts of Movement
1) Task

2) Environment

3) Individual
2 parts of environment
- Regulatory
- characteristics of environment which shape the movement itself (ex. floor surface, height of step)

- Non-Regulatory
- environmental features which may affect movement, but need not conform (ex. noise, temperature, distracters)
3 parts of individual
1) Cognition
- includes attention, motive, emotions, intent or goal of individual

2) Perception
- sensory and perceptual systems; info about the state of the body and about the environment

3) Action
- motor control is studied in relation to some action (walk, sit, run); must understand control of effectors (e.g. muscles) which cause the action to occur
NGST Assumptions
1) Adequate sensory and motor DEVELOPMENT for movement

2) System can EXPERIENCE or sense effects of movement in context

3)System can ADAPT based on experience

4) SELECTION of movements to accomplish given task in a given environment

5) Functional SYNERGIES form

6) Global motor and sensory MAPS form

7) Favored movements become RE-ENFORCED