Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

96 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Speed and bending (refraction) of light regulated by _
Medium density
Shorter wavelength rays (gamma, x ray) have _ (higher, lower) energy?
Shorter wavelength - higher energy

Longer wavelength (microwaves, radiowaves) - longer wavelength, lower energy
Only light that is _ (absorbed, reflected) by object will reach the eye
_ color absorbs all wavelengths
_ color reflects all wavelengths
If the object neither reflects nor absorbs light rays it is _
Refractive index is _
Velocity of light in air/velocity of light in substance
Transparent material curved on one or both sides is called _ - used to refract light rays
_ lens is thick in center and thin edges and forms real image - upside down and reversed left to right
Convex lens _ converges/diverges light?


_ lens has thick edges and thin center
Distance beyond convex lens where parallel rays converge to a common point is called _
Focal length

-1/f = 1/a + 1/b

a - distance of point source of light from lens
b - distance of focus on other side of lens
In convex lens light rays pass through center and bend - T/F
FALSE - pass through center without bending
In convex lens image past lens is _
Upside down and flipped side to side
Refractive power of lens in convex lens equals to _

In concave?
1 meter/focal length

Same - with opposite sign
Anterior chamber has _ humor

Posterior chamber has _ humor

Light refraction in eye occurs at _ and _
Cornea and lens
Light in the eye focuses on _
_ provides most refraction in the eye
_ changes shape to provide various degrees of refraction
Change of shape of the lens is possible due to control of _ by _
Zonule fibers by cililary muscles
When person is focusing on distant object ciliary muscles _ (relax/contract), lens becomes _ , radial muscles _ (relax/contract), pupils become _
Ciliary muscles - relaxed

Lens - thin and flat

Radial muscles - contract

Pupils - dilated
When person is focusing on close objects, light _ (diverges/converges), ciliary muscles _ (contract/relax), pupils become _ , circular layer muscles _ (contract/relax), eyeballs undergo convergence - medial rotation of eyeballs by _
Light diverges

Ciliary muscles contract - lens bulges

Pupils constrict

Circular muscles contract

Medial rectus muscles
When you need greater depth of focus pupils diameter _ (increases/decreases)
58 year old male comes into office with eyesight complain - he lost his ability to accomodate that well . On examination his lens is large, thick and less elastic - name condition and how would you correct
Presbyopia - need bifocals
Patient presents with nearsightedness (myopia) - what are possible causes, distant objects are focused where and how do you correct it
Eyeball is too long or too much refractive power in lens

Distant objects are focused in front of retina

Correct with CONCAVE lens
Patient presents with farsightedness (hyperopia) - possible causes, where do close objects focus and how do you correct
Eyeball too short or lens too weak

Divergent light rays from close objects focused behind retina

Correct with CONVEX lens
Patient presents with abnormal lens curvature, some rays are refracted and others not and he lost accomodation completely - condition and correction
Astigmatism - correct with spherical or cylindrical lenses
Contact lenses are held in place by _
Thin layer of tears (refractive index almost same as cornea)
Advantages of contact lenses
- Lens turns with eye so greater field of vision

- Lens has little affect on size of object person sees
72 year old female presents with disturbed vision, on exam she has cloudy opaque areas on her lens - name her condition, treatment, vision correction and possible causes
CATARACTS - proteins of lens become denatured initially and coagulate to form opaque areas

Treatment - surgical removal of lens since vision is disturbed

Correction - CONVEX lens
_ maintains sufficient pressure in eyeball to keep it distended
Intraocular fluid
This fluid in the eye is freely flowing, made by ciliary processes and has constant turnover
Aqeuous humor
This fluid of the eye is gelatin like, has water and dissolved substances and gets filtered and diffuse at retinal vessels
Vitreous humor
Intraocular pressure is due to resistance to outflow of aqueous humor into _
Canal of Schlemm
Average intraocular pressure is _
15 mmHg
_ used to measure introcular pressure, can be contact or noncontact and can use inward displacement of cornea to measure pressure _
Patient presents with blindness that occured within days, intraocular pressure was measured and was found to be 70 mmHg - name condition, why did blindness occured and treatment
GLAUCOMA - optic nerve axons and retinal artery compressed by increased intraocular pressure on optic disk, nutrients could not get in and cell death occured

Treatment - drops to decrease secretion or increase absorption of aqueous humor, surgery
Blind spot of the eye is called _
Optic disk
Sensory layer of the eye that prevents scattering of stray light and where phagocytosis of shed photoreceptor particles occurs
Patients with this condition make no melanin, and when they enter bright room light is reflected in all directions
Outer nuclear layer of retina contains _
Rods and cones
Inner nuclear layer of retina contains _
Interneurons (excitatory and inhibitory), amacrine, horizontal and bipolar cells
Axons from _ make optic nerve
Ganglion cell layer
Part of photoreceptor that contains photopigment
Outer segment
Photopigment of rods
Photopigment of cones
Pigment sensitive to red, blue and green
Part of photopigment that contains nucleus, mitochondria and other organelles and synthesizes photopigment
Inner segment
Part of photoreceptor that contacts one or more bipolar cells and releases NT with no light stimulation
Synaptic body
This receptor is monochromatic, it is more effective in dark, bleached in daylight and located mostly in periphery. Allows low visual acuity
This photoreceptor is trichromatic, has no efficiency in dark but highly effective in light,located mostly in fovea and allows high visual acuity
Central retinal artery enters via _
Highly vascularized layer between retina and sclera is called _
When light rays enter the eye they excite _ which excite _ and _ which provide lateral communication. _ cells than excite ganglion cells and amacrine cells
Bipolar cells
Horizontal cells
Bipolar cells
ONLY _ GENERATE ACTION POTENTIALS - all others generate _

Receptor potentials
This cell layer in retina is constantly tonically active
Ganglion cell layer
NO LIGHT - nonselective cation channels are _ and membrane is constantly _ . _ bound to the channel keeps it open. Na/K and Na/Ca exchangers help maintain ionic balance
LIGHT STIMULATION _ changes into active form and activates transducin. Transducin associates with _ , _ is inactivated, without it Na channels close and membranes _
Patient complains of night blindness - what is he probably suffering from and how can you reverse that
Chronic vitamin A defficiency - decreased formation of retinal acid and rhodopsin

Reverse with IV vitamin A
Dark increases/decreases pupil size
Dark increases pupil size, light constricts
This phenomenon enhances contrast and is achieved by horizontal cells
Lateral inhibition
Stimulation of the center of this cell excites cell and stimulation of surround hyperpolarizes it
On-center, off-surround
Stimulation of the center of this cell hyperpolarizes cell and stimulation of surround excites it
Off-center, on-surround
Main functions of auditory system are _
Localization of sound
Characteristic sounds
Central organizing principle of auditory system is _
In young adult human normal hearing range is _
20Hz to 20000 Hz
Most sensitive range of hearing in human is _
1000-4000 Hz
These two ossicles act together as single lever - _ and _ When _ moves footplate of _ applies pressure at oval windown
Incus and malleus


Handle of _ is pulled inward by tensor tympani - better transmission at tympanic membrane
Middle ear ossicles function in _ reflex - contraction of stapedius muscle
_ causes travelling wave that runs along the basilar membrane
Action of footplate of stapes at oval window
Hair cells have vertical _ projecting from apical surface
Tips of adjacent stereocilia are connected by _
Tip links
Deflection of stereocilia towards the talles member results in _
Opening of cation channels and depolarization
Scala vestibuli and scala tympani contain _ - similar in composition to CSF
Scala media contains _ made by _ - this solution is high in K and low in Na

Stria vascularis
Stereocilia and rest of hairs are separated by _
Reticular lamina
Resting potential of hair cell is _
- 60 mV
_ makes hair cells very sensitive to vibrations of basilar membrane
Huge electric potential
Displacement of basilar membrane results in :

_ of hair cell

Opening of voltage gated _ channels

Release of _

Opening of _ channels (repolarization)



Ca dependent K channels
Position along the basilar membrane that vibrates determines frequency of sound - this is called
Place code
These frequencies are likely coded in cochlear nuclei and not in basilar membrane (destruction of basilar membrane doesnt eliminate them)
Low frequencies - less then 200 Hz
When you play sound in the air you can record sound that is coming back . This is called _
Otoacoustic emission
Receptive fields of many auditory neurons are influenced by _
_ plays essential role in sound localization
Superior olivary complex
_ sounds are deflected by the head and acoustic shadow is formed - arrival at distant ear has lost some intensit
High frequency (2-20 kHz)
_ are utilized to locate high frequency sounds in azimuth
Interaural intensity disparities
Binaural neurons are formed in _
Inferior colliculus
Sensorineural deafness refers to _ and _ caused by _
Complete deafness
High frequency hearing loss

Auditory nerve or cochlea damage
In conductive hearing loss there is no _ conduction but _ conduction is possible, common cause is _
Air conduction


Ringing in ears is called _
Age related hearing loss is called
Tumor that commonly causes damage to auditory nerve and deafness is called _
Acoustic neuroma
Weber test is testing _ . In this test you place tuning fork on _ and normally sound is loudest in _ . With conductive hearing loss sound seems louder in _ , with sensorineuronal hearing loss seems louder in _
Bony conduction
Midline (equal in both ears)
Affected ear (ossicles dont move - no ambient noise)
Normal ear
In Rinne test you compare _ .You place tuning fork on _ . Then you move tuning fork _ . Normally _ , in conductive hearing loss there are no _
Air and boney conduction
In front of ear
Still hear by air conduction
Air vibrations
In order for cochlear implant to work what need to be intact
Auditory nerve