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8 Cards in this Set

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What are current uses for barbituates? What are the barbs?
Preoperative sedation, hypnotic sleep induction, ER management of siezures, anticonvulsants, IV anesthesia. Phenobarbitol (h,ac), pentobarbitol(h,sed,ER), thiopentol(anes)
What are actions of barbitutates on CNS?
Depress CNS by acting on RF, incr pain perception, peridoxical excitement of children and elderly, OD causing resp depressn, hypothermia, hypotsn, circulatory collapse
What are the pharmacological actions of barbs?
CNS depression, inhibition of ganglionic transmission causing decr BP, inhibition of GI/urinary sm muscle, induction of certain P450s, induce dependence and addiction
What are major pharmacological actions of benzos along w/ doses they occur at (H-high, M-moderate, L-low)?
Antianxiety-L, Conscious sedation-M, Muscle relaxation-M, Anti-convulsant-M, Sleep induction-H, memory impairment-dose-related
What are the advantages of benzos over older sedative-hypnotics? What are the disadvantages?
BZDs have higher TI so safer in OD w/ less CNS depression, clear anxiolytic effect, skeletal muscle relaxant, no liver P450 induxn. Disadvantage: physical dependence
What is mechanism of action of BZDs?
facilitate the action of GABA by increasing opening of Cl channels in response to GABA
What are the general effects of sedative-hypnotics on short term sleep? What about taking them longer then a week?
Short term: decrease sleep latency, increase stage 2, decrease stage 3,4,REM, decrease nocturnal wakenings, increase total sleep time. Longer than week: decr total sleep time, incr wakenings, early wakenings and anxiety, incr stage2... decr3,4,REM
Most sedative-hypnotics increase light stages of sleep (stage 2) and decrease heavy stages (3,4). What are exceptions?
BZD agonists: Zolpidem, Zaleplon, Escopiclone