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35 Cards in this Set

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What is lipofuscion
The yellow-brown pigment that is the by-product of lysosomal activity. Accumulates with age.
What is retrograde flow?
It is movement up the axon towards the cell body. Viruses and neurotoxins can enter the axon terminal and travel to the cell body by this manner.
What organelles are found in the axon
mitochondria, microtubules, neurofilaments, and synaptic vessicles
What are satellite cells?
the supportive glial cell for the sensory and sympathetic ganglia

THE ARE NOT FOUND IN THE PARASYMPATHTIC GANGLA
Where are nissl bodies found
They are highly developed rER in the Soma
What are sensory ganglia
Ovoid strutures containing soma encapuslated by dense connective tissue outside the CNS
What is Auerbachs plexus?
It is the parasympathetic ganglion in the walls of the lower GI
What two pathologies are seen in individuals with Alzheimers?
Neurobrillary tangles

Amyloid plaques
Two unique features of dendrites?
No myelin sheath

Cytoplasm lacks golgi complex
What and where is the pseudounipolar?
it has a single process closs to the cell body that divides into 2 branches. One from the CNS and the other returns from the peripheral ending. Um like in dorsal root ganglia.
What do motor neurons do?
The control effector organs and exocrine and endocrine glands
What are the four cells that make up the CNS?
Epithelial cells
Neurons
Ependymal cells
Glia
What and where are ependymal cells?
Modified to form choroid plexus whihc produces CSF
What are oligodendrocytes
IN CNS: mylinate multiple axons, produce myelin. In gray matter localized close to soma in white matter appear in rows amoung mylingated nerve fibers
What oligodendrocytes look like histologically
Dark nuclei with a perinuclear halo
Where and what are astrocytes?
The largest of all neuroglia cells. Have long processes that attach to capillary walls. Localized in white matter.

Mitotically active
What does the astrocyte act as an interface for?
The pia, ependyma, CNS, and nutrient transport to neurons
What makes up the blood brain barrier
Vascular endothelial cells
Zonula occuludins junctions
Astrocyte processes
Tight junctions of the arachnoid cells
What are microglia?
Phagocytic cells actually derived from bone marrow monocytes?
Where do all glial cells other than microglia come from?
The neural tube
What are schwann cells?
The cells in the PNS that wrap around axons that may or may not be myelinated?

Come from neural crest cells
What is myelin?
A lipoprotein?
What is the space between adjacent scwhann cells?
Nodes of ranvier?
Where is grey matter in the brain?
It is superficial to the white matter.
What be Meissner's corpuscles?
Fine touch receptors(mechanoreceptors) numerous in dermal papillae of finger pads. Small ovoid or cylindrical in shape

Found in lips, genital skin, edge of eyelinds.
How many axons do pseudouniplar neurons have?
They have two.
Whad dem pacinian corpuscles?
Lamellated corpuscles. Oncion shaped. Sense organs stimulated by presure found in deep layers of skin particulary around finger pads in peritoneum, tendons, and ligaments and aroudn viscera. Transducer whihc responds to vibration, pressure, and tension.
Intrafusal fiber/muscle spindles?
Muscle spindles are made up of 3-13 intrafusal fibers that are much smaller than the extrafusal fibers that are responsible for contraction. Intrafusal fibers have thier nuclei concentrated at teh center of the cell. These are receptors that monitor the amount and rate of stretch in muscle.
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What is multiple sclerosis?
A primary demyelinating disease? Plaques of demylination occur in the WHITE matter but the axons remain intact. The axons are unable to conduct properly. Over time the plaques are replaced by glial scar tissue and the trapped axons degenerate as well. Old plaques feel frim in post mortem slices of the brain.
What is synapse?
Where to neurons communicate.

Action potential travels in both directions.
What is the terminal?
The axon terminal is the enlarged end of the axon. It is the presynaptic elemento fthe synapse IN the terminals are synaptic vesicles which contain neurotransmitters and mitochondria.
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