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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is an infection in the meninges called?
What is an infection in the epidural/subdural space called?
What is an infection in the parenchyma called?
1.Empyema's are commonly caused by what?
2.What is the best modality for choice of diagnosis?
1.Otorhinologic infection
What are the 3 predisposing factors for meningitis?
2.Chronic pulmonary infection
3.Tetrology of Fallot (congenital heart disease)
Why should a spinal tap be done instead of a CT or MRI for the initial diagnosis of meningitis?
CT and MRI are normal initially--unless flaming meningitis.
What does a cerebral abscess show in imaging?
-Ring enhancing lesion with mass effect.
-Has surrounding edema.
With a ring enhancing lesion in the parenchyma, what are the 3 differential diagnosis?
3.resolving hematoma
How is an abscess differentiated from a tumor?
Biopsy--lots of PMNs and bacteria mean that its an abscess.
Assuming the patient has not had any head trauma, an air collection within a ring-enhancing lesion would guide you more towards what?
1.Aseptic Meningitis
4.Altered Mental Status***
5.Focal/diffuse neurologic deficit
What's the cause?
Herpes Encephalitis!
How does herpes encephalitis spread?
Reactivation in trigeminal nerve ganglion-->trigeminal nerve has connections right to the temporal lobe--this is where you will find the virus!
1.Seen in immunocompromised.
2.Progressive demyelinating disorder, associated with a virus.
3.MRI findings not specific, causes white matter changes
4.When patients are diagnosed don't do well, usually die within a year.
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)
How is Lyme Disease treated?
What does one have to know to differentiate between Lyme Disease and MS?
Pts. age and history.
1.Seen more in an AIDs population
2.Occurs from reactivation of a latent infection
3.It can cause infarction or abscess formation
4.Most often involves the basal ganglia, white matter, and periventricular regions
5.It's a ring-enhancing lesion just like an abscess would be.
5.*****Main differential diagnosis is LYMPHOMA**
What's the cause?
1.GI tract-->Blood-->Brain
2.Clinical Presentation: confusion, dementia
3."swiss cheese appearance"
1.Where does vertebral osteomyelitis typically occur?
2.What is it commonly caused by?
1.Lumbar, Thoracic Spine
2.Staph Aurues
What are the 3 routes of infection of vertebral osteomyelitis?
What diagnostic exam is both sensitive and specific for vertebral osteomyelitis?
What structures does vertebral osteomyelitis involve?
2 adjacent vertebral bodies and disk space.
What type of scan?
-Works by taking radioactive molecular and attach it to another molecule?
-This molecule basically goes wherever bone is being repaired.
-Incorporates itself into bone repair
-Anything that is bright means there is activity and uptake=something is wrong
Nuclear Medicine Bone Scan