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74 Cards in this Set

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1. caudate nucleus
2. putamen
3. globus pallidus
4. subthalamic nucleus
5. substantia nigra
BASAL GANGLIA
Major signs and symptoms associated with lesions in the basal ganglia:
Involuntary movements and resting tremors
major sign of a lesion in the cerebellum:
incoordination, clumsiness
CN II is an outgrowth of the :
Diencephalon
Unimodal means:
single function
Multimodal means:
multi function
The primary auditory cortex is in the:
superior temporal gyrus
The primary auditory nucleus recieves input from the:
medial geniculate nucleus
The primary visual cortex receives its input from the:
lateral geniculate nucleus
The primary motor cortex is the final cortical site for the processing of motor commands and is involved with:
the execution of motor commnads
The primary motor cortex is located in:
the precentral gyrus
The primary motor cortex is responsible for the:
EXECUTION OF MOVEMENTS
The two large areas of the neocortex that are involved in higher order mental functions:
1. PTO (parietal-temporal-occipital lobe

2. Prefrontal cortex
What does the PTO do?
the PTO association cortex integrates information recieved from all the unimodal sensory association cortical regions and puts it together (perception)
The PTO projects to the prefrontal association cortex that is involved in:
planning, judgement, decision making, understanding the consequences and determining socially appropriate behavior.
Functions of the prefrontal cortex:
planning / order

motivation / initiative

control / restraint
What hemisphere of the brain are the language centers primarily in?
LEFT
Wernicke's area is involved in:
The receptive aspect of language and comprehension
Broca's area is involved in the:
expressive aspect of language
Dysarthria is:
a problem articulating speech.
Dysarthria may result in lesions involving the brainstem and cerebellum:
CN V3 mandibular - jaw movement
CN VII - cheek muscles
CN IX / X - soft palate
CNXII - tongue movement
Cerebellum (coordinates all movement)
Wernicke's aphasia:
sensory aphasia
receptive aphasia
fluent aphasia
Broca's area:
motor aphasia
expressive aphasia
non-fluent aphasia
What is impaired in Wernicke's aphasia?
comprehension and understanding.
words come out easily but they make no sense, patient may use the wrong words, combine pats of different words... speech is fluent but meaningless
What happens in Broca's aphasia?
The person can understand you, but they cannot express themselves (non-fluent)
What is Global Aphasia?
lesion is both Broca's and wernicke's leads to both problems with comprehension and expression
Right hemisphere functions:
Right hemisphere is the non-dominant hemi for language and is not involved with words, but rather tones, cadences and emphasis with words
Most sensory information reaches the cortex indirectly by relay neurons in the....
THALAMUS
The thalamus is also known as the :
gatekeeper
The hypothalamus is only visible from the:
inferior portion of the brain
Hypothalamic functions include:
sex and repro functions
feeding behavior
water balance (ADH)
osmolarity of the blood
thermoregulation
biologic and circadian rhythms
analgesic
Polyuria is
too much urine is excreted
Polydipsia is:
excessive thirst / water intake due to too much urine being excreted
What does the paraventricular nucleus do?
regulates water balance
produces ADH and OXYTOCIN
destruction of this nucleus causes diabetes insipidus
What does the suprachiasmactic nucleus do?
receives input from the retina
controls circadian rhythms
What does the arcuate nucleus do?
produces hypothalamic releasing factors

contains dopa-ergic neurons that inhibit pain.
Loss of sympathetic innervation of the head and face is called?
Horner's syndrome
Horner's syndrome presents with
Ptosis (drooping of the eyelid)
Miosis (constriction of pupil)
Anhydrosis (decreased sweating)
The hypothalamic spinal projections in the dorsolateral pons and medulla are most commonly damaged as a consequence of occlusion of the PICA, and is called:
Wallenburg syndrome
When a person develops Wallenburg syndrome, what syndrome may accompany it as a secondary condition?
Horner's syndrome
An apical lung tumor that may interrupt the T1 preganglionic fibers to the sympathetic chain:
Pancoast tumor
What hormones does the anterior pituitary produce?
Stimulating hormones:
GH
TSH
FSH
LH
ACTH
Prolactic
What is one of the best known hypothalamic syndromes?
Diabetes insipidus
The hypothalamus modulates pain through what brainstem nuclei?
periaqueductal gray
raphe magnus nucleus
What cranial nerves pass through the superior orbital fissure?
Occulomotor
trochlear
trigeminal
abducens
What cranial nerves pass through the Internal Auditory meatus?
Facial
Vestibularcochlear
What cranial nerves pass through the jugular foramen?
CN 9, 10, 11
When would diplopia develop with a right abducens (VI) lesion?
When looking to the right
If diplopia develops, when looking laterally to the left, which muslces and cranial nerves might be involved?
Left lateral rectus
left abducens nerve

or

Right medial rectus
Right occulomotor n.
The trochlear nerve innervates the contralateral:
superior oblique muscle
What parasympathetic cranial nerve innervates the lacrimal gland?
CN VII facial
What nerve innervates the muscles of facial expression?
CN VII facial
Are the motor fibers in the facial nerve upper or lower motor neurons?
LMN's
The facial nucleus receives what innervation?
corticobulbar UMN innervation
Involvement of the facial nerve as it passes through the facial canal in the temporal bone usually compromises both the fibers to the upper and lower face resulting in facial weakness on what side?
IPSILATERAL
Facial weakness due to an UMN lesion (corticobulbar tract) results in weakness where?
The contralateral lower quadrant of the face.
The cerebellum constitutes only 10% of the brain, but it contains more than ______ of its neurons.
1/2
The anterior and / or paraventricular nuclei stimulate the sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous system?
The parasympathetic
Is an erection a sympathetic or parasympathetic function?
parasympathetic
The posterior nucleus of the hypothalamus stimulates what system?
The sympathetic.
Is ejacuation sympathetic or parasympathetic?
SYMPATHETIC
What hypothalamic nucleus is also known as the "master clock"?
The suprachiasmatic
Where is the cerebellum located?
In the posterior fossa behind the brainstem
The cerebellum is derived from:
The metenchephalon (along with the pons)
How many lobes does the cerebellum have?
3 lobes
What are the names of the lobes of the cerebellum?
1. flocculonodular (archicerebellum)

2. anterior lobe (paleocerebellum)

3. posterior lobe (neocerebellum)
From medial to lateral the cerebellar nuclei are as follows:
Fastigial, globose, emboliform, and dentate
The medial (vermal)zone projects to which nucleus?
The fastigial
The lateral zone projects to which nucleus?
the dentate
The longitudinal zones of the cerebellum are associated with which nuclei?
the deep cerebellar nuclei
The cerebellum consists of 3 functional divisions:
1. vestibulocerebellum (flocculonodular lobe)

2. spinocerebellum (medial and intermediate zone)

3. cerebrocerebellum (lateral zone)
What are the functions of the cerebellum?
balance
coordination of head and eye movements
posture
coordination of voluntary movements
motor planning
motor learning
Which functional division of the cerebellum is involved in balance and coordination of the head and eyes?
vestibulocerebellum
the spinocerebellum influences motor function of :
the trunk and limbs via its influence on the medial UMN groups in the spinal cord.