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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are electrolyte abnormalities that can cause seizures?
• Na < 120 or > 150 mEq/L
• Osmolarity > 310 mOsm/L
• Ca < 7 mg/dl
What are drugs that can cause seizures?
• Amphetamines
• Cocaine
• Ephedrine
• EtOH withdrawal
• Lidocaine
• PCN’s
• Theophylline
• TCA’s
What are CNS diseases that can cause seizures?
• brain abscess
• eclampsia
• hypertensive/hepatic encephalopathy
• menigitis
• sickle cell disease
• stroke
What is the most common cause of seizures in both children and adults?
What are characteristics of simple partial seizures?
• no loss of consciousness
• may be manifested by motor, sensory, psychiatric, or autonomic symptoms
What are the different types of general seizures of non-focal origin?
• absence seizures (petit mal)
• atonic
• myoclonic
• tonic
• tonic-clonic
What are tonic movements? clonic movements?
• tonic: stiffening
• clonic: rhythmic jerking
Most complex partial seizures arise from which lobe?
temporal lobe (70-80%)
Describe a generalized tonic-clonic seizure
• abrupt LOC
• bilateral tonic extension of trunk and limbs (tonic phase)
• loud vocalization "epileptic cry"
• bilaterally synchronous muscle jerking (clonic phase)
What are transient physical changes that occur during seizures?
• elevated plasma catecholamines
• hypoxia
• increase CPK, prolactin, corticotropin, cortisol, Beta-endorphin, & GH
• lactic acidosis
What are complications of seizures?
• aspiration pneumonia
• oral trauma
• shoulder dislocation
• sudden death (acute pulmonary edema, cardiac arrhythmia, suffocation)
• vertebral compression fractures
What is the DOC for absence seizure?
What are characteristics of absence seizures?
• mainly in children
• sudden, momentary plases in awareness, staring, rhythmic blinking, & few small clonic jerks of arms and hand
• immediate return to normal
• no postictal period
• usually no recollection of seizure
• most last < 10 seconds
What are characteristics of atypical absence seizures?
• more gradual onset and termination
• most often in metally retarded children
• does not respond as well to drugs
What are characteristics of atonic seizures?
• aka drop attacks
• most often in children w/ diffuse encephalopathies
• sudden loss of muscle tones (falls with self-injury)
What is the most common cause of convulsions in children?
febrile seizures
Most febrile seizures occur between what ages?
6 months-4 years
What are characteristics of Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome?
• heterogeneous group of early childhood epileptic encephalopathies
• mental retardation
• physical brain abnormalities
• uncontrolled seizures
What activity is seen on an EEG during an absence seizure?
3-Hz spike/sec
What are other disorders that can resemble a seizure?
• alcoholic blackouts
• behavioral & psychiatric disorders (ex. panic, hyperventilation, dissociation)
• cataplexy
• hypoglycemia
• migraine (confusional, vertebrobasilar)
• movement disorders (ex. myoclonus, episodic ataxias)
• syncope
What are medical treatment options for partial & secondary generalized seizures?
• Carbamazepine
• Phenytoin
• Valpoate
• Gabapentin (Neurontin)
• Lamotrigine
• Topiramate
What are medical treatment options of tonic-clonic seizures?
• carbamazepine
• lamotrigine
• phenytoin
• valproate
What are treatment options for absence seizures?
• Ethosuximide (DOC)
• Valproate
• Lamotrigine
What are treatment options of myoclonic and tonic seizures?
• Valproate
• Clonazepam
What is the most common cause of status epilepticus?
abrupt anticonvulsant medication withdrawal
What are other causes of status epilepticus?
• alcohol or drug withdrawal from abuser
• cerebral infection
• hemorrhage
• neoplasm
• trauma