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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is dementia?
• progressive loss of intellectual function, including memory loss
• also can have deficits in language, spatial processing, praxis, & executive function
What are examples of cortical dementia?
• Alzheimer's disease
• diffuse Lewy body disease
• frontotemporal dementia
• vascular dementia
What are symptoms of cortical dementia?
• major changes in memory
• language deficits
• perceptual deficits
• praxis disturbances
What are examples of subcortical dementia?
• Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
• chronic menigitis
• Huntington's disease
• normal pressure hydrocephalus
• Parkinson's disease
• progressive supranuclear palsy
What are symptoms of subcortical dementia?
• behavioral changes
• executive dysfunction
• impaired affect and mood
• less severe changes in memory
• motor slowing
What are etiologies for dementia?
• demyelinating disease
• heredometabolic disase
• infectious disease
• metabolic or nutritional disease
• neurodegenerative disease
• psychiatric disease
• structural disease or trauma
• vascular disease
Which form of dementia is characterized by progressive loss of cortical neurons, formation of amyloid plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles?
Alzheimer's Disease
Patients with Alzheimer's disease have a relative deficiency in the neurotransmitter?
acetylcholine
What are clinical features of Alzheimers?
• begins gradually
• affects multiple cognitive functions
What are cognitive functions affected by Alzheimers?
• judgement
• insight
• language
• memory
• orientation
• praxis
• visuospatial processing
How is a definitive diagnosis of Alzheimer's made?
biopsy or autopsy confirmation
What are treatment options for Alzheimer's?
• Cholinesterase-inhibiting drugs
• Nursing services
• Antipsychotics, antidepressants, & anxiolytics
List examples of cholinesterase inhibitors
• Donepezil (Aricept)
• Rivastigmine (Exelon)
• Tacrine (Cognex)
What is the second most common cause of dementia?
Diffuse Lewy Body Disease
What are characteristics of Pick's disease?
• atrophy of the frontal and temporal areas of the brain
• often begins w/ marked behavioral disturbances
• pts often are hot-tempered & socially disinhibitied
How does the onset of dementia in Parkinson's differ from Alzheimer's?
in Parkinson's, dementia occurs late in the disease
What is the triad of symptoms of normal pressure hydrocephalus?
• dementia
• gait instability
• urinary incontinence
What is the difference between anterograde & retrograde amnesia?
• Anterograde: inability to learn new information
• Retrograde: inability to recollect prior information