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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Signs and Symptoms and Diagnostic Tests Used to Determine Cerebellum Dysfunction? (P.677)
- 1. Balance Tests are Typically Used to Diagnose Cerebellar Function
- Gait (Observe Person Walking 20ft and Returning to Normal) Movements Smooth & Rhythmic
- Romberg Test – Person Must be Standing w/ Eyes Closed 20sec. Observe Balance & Posture.
- 2. Coordination & Skilled Movements
- Rapid Alternating Movements – Pat Knees with Both Hands Lift-Up Pat Knees Back of Hand
- Finger-To-Finger Test – Touch Your Finger Then Touch His/Her Nose
- Finger-To-Nose – Touch Nose with Eyes Closed
- Heel-To-Shin – In Supine, Place Heel on Opposite Knee
Differentiate Between Vertigo and Dizziness? (P.669)
- Syncope – Sudden Loss of Strength, a Temporary Loss of Consciousness Due To Lack of Cerebral Blood Flow.
- Vertigo – Rotational Spinning Caused by Neurological Dysfunction or Vestibular Apparatus
Define an Aura? (P.670)
- Subjective Sensation that Precedes a Seizure
Part of CNS Functioning Evaluated When Level of Orientation is Assessed? (P.662)
- Frontal Lobe – Personality, Behaviour, Emotion, & Intellectual Function.
Define PERRLA. How is it Assessed? (P.314)
- Pupils Equal Round React to Light & Accomodation
- Test Pupillary Light Reflex - Place Hand in Middle of Nose; Shine Flashlight Briefly Over Eyes; Shine Flash Light On One Side & Observe Simultaneous Contraction of Pupils.
- Accomodation – Place Finger Away From Midline of Nose; Move Finger Closer to Nose; Observe Convergence & Dilation of Pupils.
Normal Findings When Grips are Assessed? (P.701)
- Equalbilateral Gripping
- No Signs of Diffuse of Brain Damage on Frontal Lobe
Purpose of Weber and Rinne Test? (P.352-353)
- Weber – When a Person can Hear in One Ear Better than Other. Place Tuning Fork on Head
- Compares Air Conduction & Bone Conduction
Differentiate Between Delirium and Dementia? (P.123)
- Disturbance of Consciousness
- Changes in Cognition
- Develops Over a Short Period of Time

- Multiple Cognitive Defecits
- Cognitive Disturbances (Aphasia, Apraxia, Agnosia, Disturbance in Executive Function)
Define Hemiparesis? (P.710)
- Flaccid Paralysis of One Side of the Body
Signs and Symptoms of Meningeal Irritation? (P.717)
- Opisthotonos
- Prolonged Arching of the Back, with Head & Heels Bent Backwards
Differentiate Between Screening Neurologic Exam, Complete Neurologic Exam and Neurologic Recheck. Give Examples of when each of these Exams would be Performed?
(P.672, 700)
- Screening Neurologic Exam – Seemingly Well Persons Who Have No Subjective Findings.
- Complete Neurologic Exam - Persons with Concerns or Demonstrate Dysfunction.
- Neurologic Recheck – Used on Persons with Demonstrated Deficits Who Require Periodic Assessments.
Describe Pupil Responses Noted in Increasing ICP? (P.702)
- Pupils Become Dilated & Non-Reactive
- Brain Stem Puts Pressure on Cranial Nerve III.
Describe Unilateral Neglect? (P.716??)
- Loss of Sensation on Side Contralateral to Lesion
Differentiate between Decorticate and Deceberate Posturing, which Indicates a Worsening Condition? (P.717)
- Decorticate – Upper Extremities, Adduction of Arms; Hemispheric Lesion Cerebral Cortex.
- Decerbate – Arms Stiffly Extended; More Ominous; Lesion in Brain Stem at Midbrain
Describe Astereognosis and Graphesthesia? (P.684, 685)
- Astereognosis – Inability to Identify Objects Correctly; Occurs with Sensory Cortex Lesions.
- Graphesthesia – Inability to Recognize Number Traced on Skin; Measure of Sensory Loss.
Describe Normal Finding for Each of the Reflexes? (P.686)
- Right & Left Side Should be Compared & Found To Be Equal
- Graded on a Point Scale; 4+ is Brisk; 2+ is Average Normal; 0 No Response.
Describe Examiner Techniques to Encourage Relaxation and Enhance a Reflex Response? (P.686)
- Reinforcement – Isometric Exercise in Another Muscle Group
Differentiate Between Hyperreflexia and Hyporeflexia and Give Examples of Etiologies? (P.686)
- Hyperreflexia – Exaggerated Reflex; Monosynaptic Arc Released From Higher Corticle Levels
- Hyporeflexia – Absence of Reflex; Disruption of Sensory Afferents, Motor Efferents, Spinal Cord
Describe Senile Tremors. What is the Effect of Alcohol? (P.711)
- Intention Tremors
- Cerebellar Disease and Multiple Sclersis
- Improves with Sedatives and Alcohol; But it is NOT Recommended
Describe Abnormal Findings for Each of the Cranial Nerves (Especially V and VII)? (P.708)
- V. Trigeminal – Failure to Turn Eye Down or Out
- VII. Facial – Absent or Asymmetric Facial Movement
- Too Many To List, Refer to Page 708
Describe Hyperalgesia, Hyperesthesia and Peripheral Neuropathy and the Diagnostic Tests to Assess? (P.682-683)
- Hyperalgesia – Increased Pain Sensation
- Hyperesthesia – Decreased Touch Sensation

- Peripheral Neuropathy – Worse at Feet and Improves as You Move Up Leg
Common Questions Asked to Assess Orientation? (P.109)
- Time: Day, Week, Year or Season
- Place: Where Person Lives Address, City, or State
- Person: Name, Age, Occupation
Explain the Purpose of the Glasgow Coma Scale and the Score that Indicates a Coma? (P.703)
- Standardized Objective Assessment that Defines LOC by Giving Numeric Value
- Three Areas Eye Opening, Verbal Expression, Motor Response
- Fully Alert is 15; 7 or Less Is Coma
- Assess Functional State of Brain
What are the Two Parts of the Nervous System? (P.662)
- Central Nervous System – Brain & Spinal Cord
- Peripheral Nervous System – 12 Cranial Nerves; 31 Spinal Nerves
What is a Dermatome? (P.668)
- Circumscribed Area Supplied by a Spinal Nerve
What is Accomodation? (P.302)
- Adaptation of Eye for Near Vision
- Convergence of Axis of Eyeballs & Pupillary Constriction
What is Consensual Response? (P.302)
- When One Eye is Exposed to Light, Both Pupils Constrict
What is Fasiculation? (P.710)
- Continuous Twitching of Resting Muscle
- Lower Motor Neuron Disease
- Atropy, Cold Expose, Fatigue
- NOT a Significant Condition
What is Paresis? (P.670)
- Partial or Incomplete Paralysis
What is Paresthesis? (P.670)
- Abnormal Sensation
- Burning or Tingling
What is Ptosis? (P.673)
- Drooping Occurs with Myasthenia Gravis
- Dysfunction of Cranial Nerve III
What is Nystagymus? (P.673)
- Back & Forth Oscillation of Eyes
- Disease of Cerebellum, Brain, or Vestibular System
What is Tic? (P.710)
- Repetitive Twitching of Muscle Groups at Inappropriate Times
What is Hemiplegia? (P.710)
- Paralysis to One Side of the Body (Left/Right)
Describe Decorticate Rigidity? (P.717)
Describe Decorticate Rigidity? (P.717)
What is Flaccidity? (P.708)
- Hypotonia or Decreased Muscle Tone
- Lower Motor Neuron Injury
- Peripheral Neuritis, Poliomylelitis, Guillain-Barre
What is Spasticity? (P.709)
- Increased Muscle Tone
- Injury to Corticospinal Tract; Paralysis
- Cerebrovascular Accident (Chronic Stage)
What is a Positive Romberg? (P.678)
- Loss of Balance Upon Closing Eyes
- Cerebellar Ataxia (Multiple Sclerosis, Alcohol)
What is Clonus? (P.690)
- Repeated Reflex Muscular Movements
- Upper Motor Neuron Disease
What is a Babinski Sign? (P.695)
- Stroking of Fingers Across Foot Causes Fanning of Toes
- Usually Disappers by 24 Months
- In Adults, Sign of Pyramidal Tract Disease
What is the Cushing Reflex? (P.703)
- Shows Signs of Increased Intercranial Pressure
- Could Also Be Pulse Pressure or Blood Pressure
What is Proprioception? (P.664)
- Without Looking
- A Person is Aware of the Location of Each Body Parts
What is the Reflex Arc? (P.666)
- Basic Defenses of Nervous System
- Involuntary and Operate Below Level of Conscious Control
Describe the Autonomic Nervous System? (P.668)
- Overall Function is to Maintain Homeostasis
- Peripheral Nervous System Made of Somatic & Autonomic Nervous System
- Autonomic Innervates Smooth Muscle; Somatic Innervates Skeletal Muscle
What is a TIA? (P.404 Patho)
- Mild Stroke
- Platelets Clump Causing Intermittent Blockage of Circulation
- Causes Neurologic Defecits to Clear in 24 Hours
What are the Signs/Symptoms of Meningeal Irritation? (P.716)
- Opisthotonos Posturing – Arching of Back; Head & Heel Bent Backwards
- Kernig – Pain Raising Leg or Thigh on Abdomen
- Brudezinsi – Pain Flexing of Chin
Define Dysarthria Expressive and Receptive Aphasia? (P.108, 662)
- Dysarthria – Distorted Speech; Misuse of Words
- Receptive Aphasia – Hears Sounds, but have No Meaning