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97 Cards in this Set

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WHAT DOES THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM CONSIST OF?
THE BRAIN AND THE SPINAL CORD.
WHAT IS THE SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM?
PART OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM CONTROLLING VOLUNTARY BODILY FUNCTIONS
WHAT IS THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM?
PART OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM THAT EXTENDS THROUGHOUT THE BODY AND IS COMPOSED IF THE CRANIAL NERVES ARISING FROM THE BRAIN AND THE PERIPHERAL NERVES ARISING FROM THE SPINAL CORD, ITS SUBDIVISIONS ARE THE SOMATIC AND THE AUTOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEMS.
WHAT IS THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM?
PART OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM CONTROLLING INVOLUNTARY BODILY FUNCTIONS. IT IS DIVIDED INTO THE SYMPATHETIC AND PARASYMPATHETIC SYSTEMS.
WHAT IS THE SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM?
DIVISION OF THE ANS THAT PREPARES THE BODY FOR STRESSFUL SITUATIONS. ACTIONS INCLUDE INCREASED HR AND DILATION OF THE BRONCHIOLES AND PUPILS. IT ACTIONS ARE MEDIATED BY THE NEUROTRANSMITTERS EPINEPHRINE AND NOREPINEPHRINE.
WHAT IS THE PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM?
DIVISION OF THE ANS THAT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR CONTROLLING VEGETATIVE FUNCTIONS. PNS ACTIONS INCLUDE DECREASED HR AND CONSTRICTION OF THE BRONCHIOLES AND PUPILS. ITS ACTIONS ARE MEDIATED BY THE NEUROTRANSMITTER ACETYLCHOLINE.
WHAT IS A NEURON?
NERVE CELL; THE FUNDAMENTAL COMPONENT OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM.
WHAT IS A SOMA?
THE CELL BODY. CONTAINS THE NUCLEUS AND MOST OF THE METABOLIC MACHINERY (MITOCHONDRIA, RIBOSOMES, ETC)
WHAT ARE DENDRITES?
PART OF THE NEURON THAT TRANSMITS ELECTRICAL IMPULSES TO THE CELL BODY. THEY ARE STIMULATED BY ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES OR THE ACTIVITIES OF OTHER CELLS.
WHAT ARE AXONS?
PART OF THE NEURON THAT TRANSMIT ELECTRICAL IMPULSES AWAY FROM THE CELL BODY.
EXPLAIN THE NEURON IN ITS RESTING STATE.
THE NEURON IS POSITIVELY CHARGES ON THE OUTSIDE AND NEGATIVELY CHARGED ON THE INSIDE.
WHAT HAPPENS WHEN THE NEURON IS STIMULATED?
SODIUM RAPIDLY SURGES INTO THE CELL AND POTASSIUM RAPIDLY LEAVES IT TO ELIMINATE THE DIFFERENCE IN ELECTRICAL CHARGE BETWEEN THE INSIDE AND OUTSIDE. THIS DEPOLARIZATION IS SUBSEQUENTLY TRANSMITTED DOWN THE NEURON AT AN EXTREMELY HIGH RATE OF SPEED.
WHAT ARE SYNAPTIC TERMINALS?
AT THE END OF THE AXONS, AFFECT ANOTHER NEURON OF EFFECTOR (MUSCLE, GLAND, ETC)
WHAT IS THE SYNAPSES?
IT IS WHERE THE NEURON JOINS WITH OTHER NEURONS. THE RELEASE OF NEUROTRANSMITTER OCCUR HERE CROSSING THE GAP TO REACH THE DENDRITE OF THE NEXT NEURON.
WHAT IS A NEUROTRANSMITTER?
A SUBSTANCE THAT IS RELEASED FROM THE AXON TERMINAL OF A PRESYNAPTIC NEURON UPON EXCITATION AND THAT TRAVELS ACROSS THE SYNAPTIC CLEFT TO EITHER EXCITE OF INHIBIT THE TARGET CELL.
WHAT ARE THE MENINGES?
MEMBRANES COVERING AND PROTECTING THE BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD. THEY CONSIST OF THE PIA MATER, ARACHNOID MEMBRANE AND DURA MATER.
WHAT IS THE DURA MATER?
THE TOUGH OUTERMOST LAYER OF THE MENINGES.
WHAT IS THE ARAACHNOID MEMBRANE?
THE MIDDLE LAYER OF THE MENINGES.
WHAT IS THE PIA MATER?
THE DELICATE INNERMOST LAYER OF THE MENINGES.
WHAT IS CEREBROSPINAL FLUID?
WATERY, CLEAR FLUID THAT ACTS AS A CUSHION, PROTECTING THE BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD FROM PHYSICAL IMPACTS. THE CSF ALSO SERVES AS AN ACCESSORY CIRCULATORY SYSTEM FOR THE CNS.
WHAT IS THE SUBARACHNOID SPACE?
THE SPACE BETWEEN THE PIA MATER AND THE ARACHNOID MEMBRANE.
WHAT IS THE SUBDURAL SPACE?
THE SPACE BETWEEN THE DURA MATER AND THE ARACHNOID MEMBRANE.
WHAT IS THE EPIDURAL SPACE?
THE SPACE OUTSIDE THAT DURA MATER.
WHAT IS THE CEREBRUM?
THE LARGEST PART OF THE BRAIN, CONSISTING OF TWO HEMISPHERES. THE CEREBRUM IS THE SEAT OF CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE CENTER OF THE HIGHER MENTAL FUNCTIONS SUCH AS MEMORY, LEARNING, REASONING, JUDGEMENT, INTELLIGENCE AND THE EMOTIONS.
WHAT IS THE CORPUS CALLOSUM?
THE AREA OF THE CEREBRUM WHERE BOTH HEMISPHERES ARE JOINED.
WHAT IS THE CEREBRAL CORTEX?
THE OUTERMOST LAYER OF THE CEREBRUM.
WHAT IS THE DIENCEPHALON?
PORTION OF THE BRAIN LYING BENEATH THE CEREBRUM AND ABOVE THE BRAINSTEM. IT CONTAINS THE THALAMUS, HYPOTHALAMUS AND LIMBIC SYSTEM.
WHAT IS THE BRAINSTEM?
PART OF THE BRAIN CONNECTING THE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES WITH THE SPINAL CORD. IT CONSISTS OF THE MESENCEPHALON (MIDBRAIN), PONS, AND MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
WHAT IS THE MESENCEPHALON?
PORTION OF THE BRAIN WITH THE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES; ALSO CALLED THE MIDBRAIN. IT CONTROLS MOTOR COORDINATION AND EYE MOVEMENT.
WHAT IS THE PONS?
PROCESS OF TISSUE CONNECTING THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA AND CEREBELLUM WITH UPPER PORTIONS OF THE BRAIN.
WHAT IS THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA?
LOWER PORTION OF THE BRAINSTEM, CONNECTING THE PONS AND THE SPINAL CORD. IT CONTAIN MAJOR CENTOERS FOR CONTROL OF RESPIRATORY, CARDIAC AND VASOMOTOR ACTIVITY.
WHAT IS THE CEREBELLUM?
PORTION OF THE BRAIN LOCATED DORSALLY TO THE PONS AND MEDULLA OBLONGATA. IT PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE FINE MOTOR MOVEMENT, POSTURE, EQUILIBRIUM, AND MUSCLE TONE.
WHERE IS THE SPEECH AREA LOCATED?
IN THE TEMPORAL LOBE OF THE CEREBRUM.
WHERE IS THE VISION AREA LOCATED?
IN THE OCCIPITAL CORTEX OF THE CEREBRUM.
WHERE IS THE PERSONALITY AREA LOCATED?
IN THE FRONTAL LOBES OF THE CEREBRUM.
WHERE IS BALANCE AND COORDINATION AREAS LOCATED?
IN THE CEREBELLUM.
WHERE IS THE MOTOR AREA LOCATED?
IN THE FRONTAL LOBES OF THE CEREBRUM.
THALAMUS
RELAY AND PROCESSING CENTERS FOR SENSORY INFORMATION
HYPOTHALAMUS
CENTERS CONTROLLING EMOTIONS, AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS, AND HORMONE PRODUCTION
PITUITARY GLAND
RELEASE OF HYPOTHALMIC HORMONES, SECREATION OF HORMONES REGULATING ENDOCRINE ACTIVITY (UNDER HYPOTHALAMIC CONTROL)
WHAT IS THE RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM?
THE SYSTEM RESPONSIBLE FOR CONSCIOUSNESS. A SERIES OF NERVOUS TISSUE KEEPING THE HUMAN SYSTEM IN A STATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS. IT OPERATES IN THE LATERAL PORTION OF THE MEDULLA, PONS AND ESPECIALLY THE MIDBRAIN. SENDS IMPULSES TO AND FROM THE CEREBRAL CORTEX. ALSO ALLOWS THE ABILITY TO RESPOND TO STIMULI
WHAT PERCENT OF BLOOD FLOW DOES THE BRAIN RECEIVE?
ABOUT 20 PERCENT PER MINUTE.
WHAT ARE THE CAROTID AND VERTEBROBASILAR SYSTEMS?
THE TWO VASCULAR SYSTEMS PROVIDING BLOOD FLOW TO THE BRAIN.
WHAT IS THE CIRCLE OF WILLIS?
THE AREA WHERE THE CAROTID AND VERTEBROBASILAR SYSTEMS ARE JOINED.
WHAT IS AFFERENT?
CARRYING IMPULSES TOWARD THE CNS. SENSORY NERVES ARE AFFERENT.
WHAT IS EFFERENT?
CARRYING IMPULSES AWAY FROM THE BRAIN OR SPINAL CORD TO THE PERIPHERY. MOTOR NERVES ARE EFFERENT.
WHAT ARE DERMATONES?
AREA OF THE SKIN INNERVATED BY SPINAL NERVES.
HOW LONG IS THE SPINAL CORD?
17-18 INCHES LONG IN THE AVERAGE ADULT. STARTS AT THE FORAMEN MAGNUM AND ENDS NEAR THE LEVEL OF THE FIRST LUMBAR VERTEBRA.
HOW MANY PAIRS OF NERVE FIBERS EXIT THE SPINAL CORD?
THIRTY-ONE
WHAT ARE REFLEXES?
THEY ARE PROTECTIVE. THE SPINAL CORD STIMULATES THE APPROPRIATE MUSCLE ACTION WHEN A NERVE SENSES HARM.
HOW MANY PAIRS OF CRANIAL NERVES ARE THERE?
12
WHAT IS SOMATIC SENSORY?
THESE AFFERENT NERVES TRANMIT SENSATIONS INVOLVED IN TOUCH, PRESSURE, PAIN, TEMPERATURE, AND POSITION.
WHAT IS PROPRIOCEPTION?
POSITIONAL SENSORY
WHAT IS SOMATIC MOTOR?
THESE EFFERENT FIBERS CARRY IMPULSES TO THE SKELETAL MUSCLES.
WHAT IS VISCERAL (AUTONOMIC) SENSORY?
THESE AFFERENT TRACTS TRANMIT SENSATIONS FROM THE VISCERAL ORGANS. SENSATIONS SUCH AS A FULL BLADDER OR THE NEED TO DEFECTATE ARE MEDIATED BY VISCERAL SENSORY FIBERS.
WHAT ARE VISCERAL (AUTONOMIC) MOTOR?
THESE EFFERENT FIBERS EXIT THE CNS AND BRANCH TO SUPPLY NERVES TO THE INVOLUNTARY CARDIAC MUSCLES AND SMOOTHE MUSCLE OF THE VISCERA (ORGANS) AND TO THE GLANDS.
WHAT IS COMA?
A STATE OF UNCONSCIOUSNESS FROM WHICH THE PATIENT CANNOT BE AROUSED.
WHAT ARE STRUCTURAL LESIONS IN AMS?
TUMERS, CONTUSIONS ETC DEPRESS CONSCIOUSNESS BY DESTROYING OR ENCROACHING ON THE SUBSTANCE OF THE BRAIN.
WHAT IS A TOXIC METABOLIC STATE?
INVOLVE EITHER THE PRESENCE OF CIRCULATING TOXINS OR METABOLITES OR THE LACK OF METABOLIC SUBSTRATES (O2, GLUCOSE, THIAMINE). THESE STATES PRODUCE DIFFUSE DEPRESSION OF BOTH SIDES OF THE CEREBRUM WITH OR WITHOUT DEPRESSION OF THE BRINSTEM.
WHAT IS PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY?
ANY MALFUNCTION OR DAMAGE OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVES. RESULTS MAY INCLUDE MUSCLE WEAKNESS, LOSS OF SENSATIONS, IMPAIRED REFLEXES AND INTERNAL ORGAN MALFUNCTION.
CHEYNE STOKES RESPIRATIONS
A BREATHING PATTERN CHARACTERIZED BY A PERIOD OF APNEA LASTING 10-60 SECONDS, FOLLOWED BY GRADUALLY INCREASING DEPTH AND FREQUENCY OF RESPIRATION.
KUSSMAULS RESPIRATIONS
RAPID, DEEP REPIRATIONS CAUSED BY SEVERE METABOLIC AND CNS PROBLEMS.
CENTRAL NEUROGENIC HYPERVENTALATION
HYPERVENTALATION CAUSED BY A LESION OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, OFTEN CHARACTERIZED BY RAPID, DEEP, NOISY RESPIRATIONS.
ATAXIC RESPIRATIONS
POOR RESPIRATIONS DUE TO CNS DAMAGE, CAUSING INEFFECTIVE THORACIC MUSCULAR COORDINATION.
APNEUSTIC RESPIRATIONS
BREATHING CHARACTERIZED BY PROLONGED INSPIRATION UNRELEIVED BY EXPIRATION ATTEMPS; SEEN IN PATIENTS WITH DAMAGE TO THE UPPER PART OF THE PONS.
DECORTICATE POSTURING
CHARACTERISTIC POSTURE ASSOCIATED WITH A LESION AT OR ABOVE THE UPPER BRAINSTEM. THE PATIENT PRESENTS WITH THE AREMS FLEXED, FISTS CLENCHED AND LEGS EXTENDED.
DECEREBRATE POSTURING
SUSTAINED CONTRACTION OF THE EXTENSOR MUSCLES OF THE EXTREMITIES RESULTING FROM A LESION IN THE BRAINSTEM. THE PATIENT PRESENTS WITH STIFF AND EXTENDED EXTREMITIES AND RETRACTED HEAD.
GLASCOW COMA SCALE
TOOL USED IN EVALUATING AND QUANTIFYING THE DEGREE OF COMA BY DETERMINING THE BEST MOTOR, VERBAL AND EYE-OPENING RESPONSE TO STANDARDIZED STIMULI. A PATIENT WITH 8 OR BETTER HAS A 94% FAVORABLE OUTCOME.
WHAT IS CUSHINGS TRIAD.
A COLLECTIVE CHANGE IN VITAL SIGNS (INCREASED BP, DECREASED PULSE, AND IRREGULAR RESPIRATIONS). ASSOCIATED WITH ICP.
WHAT IS AEIOU-TIPS?
A MNUMONIC ASSESMENT TOOL IN AMS.
A=ACIDOSIS, ALCOHOL
E=EPILEPSY
I=INFECTION
O=OVERDOSE
T=TRAUMA, TUMOR, TOXIN
I=INSULIN
P=PSYCHOSIS, POISON
S=STROKE, SEIZURE
WHAT IS WERNICKES SYNDROME?
CONDITION CHARACTERIZED BY LOSS OF MEMORY AND DISORIENTATION, ASSOCIATED WITH CHRONIC ALCOHOL INTAKE AND A DIET DEFICIENT IN THIAMINE.
WHAT IS KORSAKOFF'S PSYCHOSIS?
CHARACTERIZED BY DISORIENTATION, MUTTERING, DELIRIUM, INSOMNIA, DELUSIONS, AND HALLUCINATIONS. SYMPTOMS (CHRONIC ALCOHOLISM, THIAMINE DEFICIENCY). INCLUDE PAINFUL EXTREMITIES, BILATERAL WRIST DROP AND PAIN ON PRESSURE OVER THE LONG NERVES. 100MG THIAMINE (Tx)
WHAT ARE GENERALIZED SEIZURES?
SEIZURES THAT BEGIN AS AN ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE IN A SMALL AREA OF THE BRAIN BUT SPREAD TO INVOLVE THE ENTIRE CEREBRAL CORTEX, CAUSING WIDESPREAD MALFUNCTIONS.
WHAT ARE PARTIAL SEIZURES?
SEIZURES THAT REMAIN CONFINES TO A LIMITED PORTION OF THE BRIN, CAUSING LOCALIZED MALFUNCTION. PARTIAL SEIZURES MAY SPREAD AND BECOME GENERALIZED.
WHAT ARE TONIC CLONIC SEIZURES?
TYPE OF GENERALIZED SEISURE CHARACTERIZED BY A RAPID LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS AND MOTOR COORDINATION, MUSCLE SPASMS AND JERKING MOTIONS.
WHAT IS THE TONIC PHASE?
PHASE OF A SEIZURE CHARACTERIZED BY TENSION OR CONTRACTION OF MUSCLES.
WHAT IS THE CLONIC PHASE?
PHASE OF A SEIZURE CHARACTERIZED BY ALTERNATING CONTRACTION AND RELAXATION OF MUSCLES.
WHAT ARE THE PHASES OF A GENERALIZED SEIZURE?
AURA
LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS
TONIC PHASE
HYPERTONIC PHASE
CLONIC PHASE
POST SEIZURE
POSTICTAL
WHAT IS AN ABSENCE SEIZURE?
TYPE OF GENERALIZED SEIZURE WITH SUDDEN ONSET, CHARACTERIZED BY A BREIF LOSS OF AWARENESS AND RAPID RECOVERY.
WHAT IS A SIMPLE PARTIAL SEIZURE?
TYPE OF SEIZURE THAT INVOLVES LOCAL MOTOR, SENSORY OR AUTONOMIC DYSFUNCTION OF ONE AREA OF THE BODY. THERE IS NO LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS. ALSO CALLED JACSONIAN, FOCAL MOTOR OR FOCAL SENSORY.
WHAT IS A COMPLEX PARTIEL SEIZURE?
TYPE OF PARTIAL SEIZURE USUALLY ORIGINATING IN THE TEMPORAL LOBE CHARACTERIZED BY AN AURA AND FOCAL FINDINGS SUCH AS ALTERCATIONS IN MENTAL STATUS OR MOODS.
WHAT IS A VASCULAR HEADACHE?
INCLUDE MIGRAINES AND CLUSTER HEADACHES,
WHAT ARE TENSION HEADACHES?
PRODUCES A DULL ACHY PAIN THAT FEELS LIKE A FORCEFUL PRESSURE IS BEING APPLIED TO THE NECK AND OR HEAD.
WHAT IS A BRAIN ABCESS?
A COLLECTION OF PUS LOCALIZED IN AN AREA OF THE BRAIN
WHAT IS DEGENERATIVE NEUROLOGICAL DISORDER?
A COLLECTION OF DISEASES THAT SELECTIVELY AFFECT ONE OR MORE FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMS OF THE CNS.
WHAT IS ALZHEIMERS DISEASE?
A DEGENERATIVE BRAIN DISORDER THE MOST COMMON CAUSE OF DEMENTIAL IN THE ELDERLY
WHAT IS MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY?
A GROUP OF GENETIC DISEASES CHARACTERIZED BY PROGRESSIVE MUSCLE WEAKNESS AND DEGENERATION OF THE SKELETAL OR VOLUNTARY MUSCLE FIBERS.
WHAT IS MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS?
DISEASE THAT INVOLVES INFLAMMATION OF CERTAIN NERVE CELLS FOLLOWED BY DEMYELINATION, OR THE DESTRUCTION OF THE MYELIN SHEATHS, WHICH IS THE FATTY INSULATION SURROUNDING NERVE FIBERS.
WHAT ARE DYSTONIAS?
A GROUP OF DISORDERS CHARACTERIZED BU MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS THAT CAUSE TWISTING AND REPETITIVE MOVEMENTS, ABNORMAL POSTURES, OR FREEZING IN THE MIDDLE OF AN ACTION.
WHAT IS PARKINSONS DISEASE?
CHRONIC AND PREGRESSIVE MOTOR SYSTEM DISORDER CHARACTERIZED BY TREMOR, RIGIDITY, BRADYKINESIA AND POSTURAL INSTABILITY.
WHAT IS CENTRAL PAIN SYDROME?
CONDITION RESULTING FROM DAMAGE OR INJURY TO THE BRAIN, BRAINSTEM OR SPINAL CORD CHARACTERIZED BY INTENSE, STEADY PAIN DESCRIBED AS BURNING, ACHING, TINGLING OR A PINS AND NEEDLES SENSATION.
WHAT IS BELLS PAULSY?
ONE SIDED FACIAL PARALYSIS WITH AN UNKNOWN CAUSE CHARACTERIZED BY THE INABILITY TO CLOSE THE EYE, PAIN, TEARING OF THE EYES, DROOLING, HYPERSENSITIVITY TO SOUND AND IMPAIRMENT TO TASTE.
WHAT IS AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS?
ALS, LOU GEHRIGS DISEASE. PROGRESSIVE DEGENERATION OF SPECIFIC NERVE CELLS THAT CONTROL COLUNTARY MOVEMENT CHARACTERIZED BY WEAKNESS, LOSS OF MOTOR CONTROL, DIFFICULTY SPEAKING AND CRAMPING. ALSO
WHAT IS MYOCLONUS?
TEMPORARY, INVOLUNTARY TWITCHING OR SPASM OF A MUSCLE OR GROUP OF MUSCLES.
WHAT IS SPINA BIFIDA?
A NEURAL DEFECT THAT RESULTS FROM THE FAILURE OF ONE OR MORE OF THE FETAL VERTEBRAE TO CLOSE PROPERLY DURING THE FIRST MONTH OF PREGNANCY.
WHAT IS POLIOMYELITIS?
INFECTIOUS, INFLAMMATORY VIRAL DISEASE OF THE CNS THAT SOMETIMES RESULTS IN PERMANENT PARALYSIS.
WHAT IS TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA?
IS DUE TO ABNORMAL CONDUCTION OF IMPULSES ALONG THE TRGEMINAL NERVE (CRANIAL NERVE V). PART OF CENTRAL PAIN SYNDROME.