Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

123 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
VP shunt malfunctions vs infections
blockages and mechanical problems much more common. Ventricular end has more problems than peritoneal, true for infectin as well.
chronic AM headache, papilledema, isotretinoin, tetracycline
pseudotumor cerebri
most common association with tourette syn
ADHD, half have ADHD
lower extremity weakness. absent dtr
guillain barre
toddler with developmental arreast, regression, microcephaly, girl, loss of puposefull hand motions
Rett Syndrome.
correlation between level of spina bifida and intellect
higher lesions have more problems
spina bifida, poor prognostic indicators
multipel shunt revisions, shunt, hight level.
required test for guillain barre
pulmonary function tests, vital capacity.
LP is helpful. protein elevated to make dx
10 month old, global hypotonia, good dtr
Prader-Willi S
global hypotonia, no dtr
SMA (central)
central core myopathy, MG, myotonic dystrophy (peripheral)
myasthenia neonatal
transient. transplacental AchR-Ab from mom. weakness, ptosis, respiratory compromise. hypotonia persists for days to months.
juvenile myasthenia gravis onset
10yrs old
severe hypotonia, ptosis, arthrogryposis, poor bbreathign and feeding
myotonic dystrophy in early infancy.
principle risk factor for stroke in kid
congenital heart disease.
hyperacusis, pairn, paresthesias in ear
prelude to Bell palsy
central lesion as opposed to Bell palsy
lower portion of face weak only.
causes of Bell palsy
HPV, EBV, mycoplasma, otitis media, mastoiditis
episodic headache with emesis, photophobia, sonophobia
initial rx for migrain in young child
meningitis, pleocytosis, elevated protein, low glucose, neg gram
TB or fungus but fungus should only occur in immunocomprimised patient
juvenile myoclonic epilepsy
myoclonic jerks on awakening. EEG: high burst spike followed by slow waves.
14yr old jerks upon awakening recurrently. Rx
juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. valproate or topiramate
Difficulty brushing teeth in mornign, irratic control of muscles, improves during the day. Later early AM TC seizures
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. req lifelong valproate.
myolclonic movements of neck, trunk and extrem of infant. nl exam
benign myoclonis of infancy. EEG is nl. No meds req. most outgrow by age 2.
brief symmetric contraction followed by loss of tone, collapse
myoclonic seizure
typical myoclonic epilepsy of early childhood
6mo-4yr. myoclonic seizures. half have gen T-C sz also. language and learning difficulties are common.
seizure disorder precuations
no swimming alone. no climbing trees, no bike riding on freeway. teach school and parents how to respond to seizure
3 month old jerks of trunk when falling asleep. perinatal asphyxia
infantile spasms. 80% are due to congenital brain or perinatal trauma. The 20% that are not have nl exams and usually improve with age.
10yr old pins and needles followed by progressive symmetric weakness. loss of reflexes.
most common severe complication of guillain barre
Rolandic epilepsy
benign partial epilepsy with centrotemproal spikes. common. excellent prognosis. rolandic foci on EEG, 9-10yr old with nl PMHx. nml neuro exam. Partial sz, often of the face. More common in sleep.
9yr old girl. arm spasms in sleep. nl hx. nl neuro exam
rolandic epilepsy. Carbamazepine until teenager when epilepsy tends to resolve
absence sz age
3-8yr onset. girls normal between seizures
typical vs atypical absence
typical is 5-15s sz. mild decrease in tone or eye fluttering.
atypical: automatisms or autonomic phenomena
how to provoke absence
sense of stomach full, fear, lip-smacking and fumbling of hands for minutes
comlex partial seizures.. Aura always indicatees focal onset.
carbamazepine (tegretol) is for
gen T-C sz or partial
adjunct, poorly controlled sz
broad spectrum anticonvulsant, adjunct
gen T-C, Parial, status
gen T-C, partial, status
age range for febrile seizures
trauma to chest with L arm and leg paralysis
carotid dissedtion and stroke. MCA strike from clot due to chest trauma
risk factors for stroke in kids
sickle cell. Fe deficiency anemia in toddlers. AVM,
birth difficulty with shoulder traction. limp arm, adduction, intern rotation.
Erb palsy , brachial plexus injury
miosis, ptosis, anhidrosis of half face
Horner s S., often found with Erb palsy
ASD, focal seizure, fever
brain abscess. septal defect increases likelihood
brief attacks of vertigo and ataxia in 1-5yr old
benign paroxysmal vertigo.
infant vomiting with ataxia lasting for days. Fam Hx migraine
benign paroxysmal toritcollis of infancy.
infant inability to look up, vomiting
increased ICP
repetitive flexor spasms in infant. hypsarrhythmia on EEG,
infantile spasms
5yr old agitation at night, pupils dilated. flailing extremities.
night terrors. 18mo-5yrs. early stages of sleep 1-2 hrs after falling asleep. differentiate from sz can occur during nap or upon awakening.
5yr old inability to walk, areflexia, no sensory loss, weakness all extremities, ptosis.
Tick paralysis, Guillain-Barre. Tick paralysis progresses more quickly than does Guillain Barre.
Myasthenia waxes and wanes, evening fatigue.
transverse myelitis has sensory level.
mental retardation, seizures, agression, hypopigmented macules
Most specific marker of TS
adenoma sebaceum develops after age 5
10yr girl, leg weakness, dermatome pain, unilat facial wekaness, areflexia, normal sensation
guillain-barre. EMG and nerve conduction studies helpful.
6 week old ELBW, multiple antibiotics in past. brain abscess. what organism
Citrobacter diversus. causes sporadic and epidemic neonatal sepsis and meningitis. causes brain abscesses, multiloculated.
premie with perventricular leukomalacia is at risk for what type of CP
spastic diplegia. (bilat lower extrem spasm)
HIE term infant with basal ganglia lesion. setup for what type of CP
status epilepticus in 2yr old with fever and normal exam. cause:
febrile seizures (meningitis will not have normal exam.)
drugs for generalized seizures
carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarb
drugs for absence seizures
valproic acid
3 per s generalized spike and wave discharge
absence seizures
14yr old girl myclonic sz, some t-c on awakening. 4-5cycle per s spike and wave
juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. lifelong valproic acid
When to taper off seizure meds
2years seizure free.
prognosis for absence epilepsy
often resolves by teen years
prognosis for complex parital seizures
likely to recur lifelong.
effect of antiepileptics on school performance
all are detrimental, phenobarb is the worst. valproate is least likely to change behavior and cognitive performance.
carbamazepine cross reaction
Lamotrigine SE
rash, stevens-johnson, especially if with valproate.
centrotemporal spikes
rolandic epilepsy
nocturnal seizures, healthy child, unilat T-C face
rolandic epilepsy
distal hypotonia, infant, progressive, bulbar dysfunction
spinal muscular atrophy. test for survival motor neuron gene
13yr old, progressive distal leg weakness, atrohpy of foot, pes cavus.
charcot-marie-tooth, AD
painfull, burning paresthesia and motor polyneuropathy
arsenic poisoning
comatose toddler, long fast, hypoglycemic, nonketotic
medium chain fatty acid disorder
anti-cholinergic toxidrome, what to do
proglonged QRS can occur, check EKG
chorea, hypotonia, emotional lability
syenham chorea: most common chorea in children: Rheumatic fever.
chorea without mood sweing or hypotonia
SLE chorea, = antiphospholipid Ab
consider Wilson disease with any movment disorder = 24hr urine colection for Cu. associated with hepatic failure.
Hepatic failure, movement disorder
Wilsons D.
hypotonia with spinal level in infant
brainstem or spine disorders
infant, hyptonia, no reflex, fasciculations, poor such, swallow
SMA, Pompe (glycogen storage), polio, cosxackievirus infection
infant with gen hypotonia, weakness, eye movements reduced, poor suck, weak cry, dff dx
Botulism, neonatal mysasthenia, congenital myasthenia
normal osmolality
osmolality approx equation
2Na + glucose/18 + BUN/2.8
cerebellar tonsils and medula through formen magnum
Chiari II malformaion associated with myelomeningocele
infant with flat parieto occiput and ipsi prominence of forehead
ositional plagiocephaly.
biggest risk factor for CP in preterm infant
perinatal infection, not birth asphyxia.
valproic acid embryopathy
neural tube defects.
best birth control for epileptic
depo shots
severe neonatal seizures. hx of hiccups in utero. refractory to entiepileptics
Pyridoxine dependency
treatment following febrile status epilepticus with nl recovery
none. febrile seizure even if status gets no meds.
abrupt headache, sz, obtundation, hemiparesis
intracranial aneurysm. sccular, large, internal carotid
irregular respirations, bradycardia, hypertension
cushings triad
worrisome signs of headache
severe, incapacitating pain, incresing freq or severeity, focal pain. vomiting persistent or increaseing in frequency. any associated neuro findings. awaken from sleep or worse on rising from bed or other valsalva maneuvers.
bandlike headache, normal neuro, no aura
tension headache
CNS complication of cyanotic heart disease
emboli and abscess.
electrolyte disturbances causing seizure
hyponatremia, hypomag, hypoCa
risk factors for febrile sz to turn into epilepsy
FH of afeb seizures, abnormal development, copmlex first febrile seizure
presence of syrinxes lined with gliogenous tissue.
sagital division of cord by fibrous or osseous tissue
protrusion of brain tissue through midline skull defect. meninglecele is same but with no brain only csf filled.
no gyri, smooth brain
unilat or bilat clefcts in cerebrum (schezen-split) usually severely affected CP, MR, sz
cysts or cavities in brain from acquired lesions like infarct or abscess.
agenesis of corpus callosum, spectrum
normal intelligence if no other anomalies. If other brain anomalies, may be very affected.
Chiari type I
teen or adult , no hydrocephalus. recurrent headache, neck pain, urinary freq, progressive LE spasticity.
Chiari type II
progressive hydrocephalus, myelomeningocele.10% present in infancty, gait abn, spasticit, inccored during childhood.
Dandy walker malformation
cystic expansion of fourth ventricle. hydrocephalus, lower ext spasticity, dev delays.
cafe au lait spots, inguinal freckles
comlications of NF-1
neuro complicatiosn. learning disabilities. ADHD, speech problems, seizures, rarely hydrocephalus. rarely a nf can go malignant
CN VIII mass
NF, meningioma, glioma, schwannoma.
infant with colic, seizures, rigidity, blindness
Krabbe disease. ar. lysosomal storage disease causing demyelintion. death by 2
girl, 1yr old loss of milestones, microcephaly. hand tremor, sighing respirations with apnea
Rett, hand wringing
most common post fossa tumor in kids
cerebellar astrocytoma. good prognosis
most common brain tumor <7
medulloblastoma. post fossa.
abrupt onset weakness, sensory spinal level, preceding viral infection, no reflex.
transverse myelitis. GBS has normal sensation.
weakness in toddler years. progressive wasting of distal muscle. v-shapped upper lip, temporal muscle wasting
myotonic Muscular dystrophy. myotonia develops late. cardiac involvement. endocrine involvement
ptosis, EOM weaknessdiplopia
Myasthenia gravis.
transient neonatal myasthnia gravis
similar to neonatal SLE. needs support until ABs gone. different than very rare congenital MG which is severe.
myasthenia dx
EMG. edrophnioum test. should suddenly fix the problem
severe hypotonia in infant, thin muscle mass, no DTR, tongue, face jaw
SMA type I
11yr old with foot deformity, gait abn. pes cavus. stork leg
charcot-marie tooth. AD demyelinating
flacid upper extremity in infant with no transverse palmar creases
congenital cervical spinal atrophy