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33 Cards in this Set

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what are the lobes of the cerebrum and their functions?
frontal-
Temporal-
parietal-
What function do the frontal lobes serve? ho w are they divided
Regulate self awareness, responsibility, purposefulness, meaning , thinking , planning working memory, inhibitory control.

bilateral lesions here will cause- personality changes, lose determinitation, abulia, disinhibition, indifference, pseudobulbar palsy (dont use the lower cranial nerves well), apraxia (can move but poor dude to connections
What is the function of the temporal lobes?
create personalized subjective emotional experience.
3 gyri - superior middle and inferior.

Contains heschl's gyrus in the medial part its primary auditory cortex
-contains the limbic system, amygdala(emotion), hippocampus (memory)

lesions can give hallucinations, partial complex seizures, emotional and behavioral changes ( dont distinguish left or right )
bilateral lesions- amnesia w/ both hippocampi,
Dominant side lesion- wernicke's aphasia
ND- difficulty with spatial relations, agnosia for sounds and quality of music
What are the different types of memory? describe
working- immediate recall.

short term- current events and object memory @ 3- 5 min

long term- old memories from childhood and youth.

Semantic- facts of common knowledge. encoded in temporal lobe retrieved by frontal

Episodic- personal filmic memories. encoded by hippocampus stored in cortex

Procedural- remembering how to do a task. stored in cerebellum and putamen, ingrained habits stored in caudate nuclei ( phobia compulsion)

Fear- stored in amygdala.
What is the gateway to the hippocampus?
Entorhinal cortex- all cortical input to the hippocampus goes through it.

In alzheimhers there is a large amount of tangles here.
What are the characteristics of Broca's aphasia?
They can understand you but cannot speak. Language is formulated into words
- broken speech, non-fluent.

lesion located posterior inferior frontal lobe
What are the characteristics of conduction, transcortical motor/sensory aphasia?
conduction- repetition affected primarily, intact comprehension and fluent speech production, but hard time repeating. Damage to arcuate fasciculus

Transcortical- lesion to anterior superior frontal lobe. Good comprehension, good repetition, difficulty with complext converstation( long sentences polysyllabic words)

Trancortical sensory- only one with normal rep but no comprehension or meaningful speech production. can finish a prayer, or song
What structures are involved in memory storage and retrieval?
hippocampus, fronix, cingulate gyrus, mamillary bodies, several nuclei in thalami
what side for language, what side for spatial orientation?
language left (dominant), spatial right
What are the characteristics of Wernicke's aphasia?
It's a fluent aphasia
- comprehension of language is affected. they cannot understand what you say and they speak to you in jibberish.repetition affected.

location- left temporal superior posterior lobe
What maybe considered the most primitive part of the limbic system?
hypothalamus fight or flight most primitive emotions. no thinking .
what does the hippocampus do?
It tells you what memories you should store. "its the decider".

throws away irrelevant memories from becoming long term. stores and consolidates new memories
what type of lesion is amnesia usually seen ?
bilateral hippocampal lesions.

Unilateral lesions generally do not cause a permanent memory deficit.
Why is the WADA test used for ?
to find out the impact of each hemisphere on language and memory of their temporal lobes. Used when considering a temporal lobe resection for seizure treatment.
Where do memories destined to be long term go after the hippocampus?
Hippocampus relays they experience to cortex. ( auditory visual etc) eventually hippocampus no longer necessary.
Function : Amygdala
Generation of the most basic/primitive emotions. concious emotions linked to frontal lobes.

Fear, Love
Fxn: Septal Nuclei
Produce extremes of emotions ( explosive violence, outbursts)
- lesions here can lead to "septal rage"
Fxn: Cingulate gyrus
Links memory and emotion, generates emotion of speech, musicality.
What is the Papez circuit?
explains the idea of emotional awareness and response to cortical influences. Not just one area for emotion but a series of linked structures. ( limbic with memory systems) get pic**
what are the functions of the parietal lobe what structures do they contain?
Right side- attention to surrounding world, direction, position. Lesion disrupts ability to attend to a stimulus. contralateral. visual-spatial disoder= contruct. apraxia cant make puzzles or map

Lack of self awareness= Anosognosia dont recognize deficit.

Visual field defect= pie on floor OKN.
Contains sensory areas for contralateral sensory info. (touch)

lesions here can result in asterognosis, agraphesthesia ( comprehend tactile stim), sensory extinction.
Right parietal lobe lesion : Neglect
Pt can ignore side of body, deny existence of own body parts, Visual neglect recovers in 9wks while motor make take 1-2 years.
What does the left parietal lobe contain what does it ?
angular gyrus- involved in symbolic representation of language (read write). Comprehension of writing
What is alexia without agraphia? how do you get it?
Reading comprehension is gone. Letters can be seen but dont mean anything. Caused by lesion of intact angular gyru disconnected from visual input.

Writing still normal b/c angular gyrus connections to motor centers intact.

aka - pure word blindness
What is Gertsmann syndrome?
lesion to left parietal lobe that includes the angular gyrus. Includes: dysgraphia, dyscalculia, R/L confusion, finger agnosia.
What is Balint Syndrome?
Lesions to bilateral dorsolateral parieto-occipiutal association cortex. Contains triad of simultanagnosia, optic ataxia, ocular apraxia.
simultanagnosia?
impaired ability to percieve parts of a visual scenes as a whole. can describe parts but dont see big picture.
optic ataxia?
impaierd ability to reach for or point to objects under visual guidance despite intact motor function.
Ocular apraxia?
inability to direct gaze towards objexts in the peripheral vision through saccades. cannot will but can react to a clap or loud sound.
What is the function of the occipital cortex?
-process the visual info detected by the primary striate cortex.
- occi-temp Projections help say what is that, what color, what it means

lesions here can cause achromatopsia, visual agnosia, alexia, prosopagnosia, topographagnosia.
Bilateral occipital lesions can cause what ?
cortical blindness-
Visual halluciniation -macro/microopsia
Anton's syndrome- denial of blindness ( dunno what missing)
Achromatopsia/visual agnosia
Inability to perceive motion
What are some interhemispheric connections?
Corpus callosum, anterior posterior commisure and optic chiasm.
What is the corpus callosum?
thick band of 80 million mylenated axons. lesions not common and known as disconnection syndromes.
Lesion in the left occipital lobe and splenium of the corpus callosum causes what?
Right angular gyrus cannot communicate with left angular gyrus. This is alexia without agraphia.