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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
parts of CNS
brain
spinal cord
parts of PNS
(peripheral nervous system)
cranial nerves
spinal nerves
carry impulses to CNS
afferent pathways
ascending pathways
transmit impulses away from CNS
efferent pathways
descending pathways
innervated by efferent pathways
effector organs
example effector organs
skeletal muscle
cardiac muscle
smooth muscle
glands
divisions of PNS
(peripheral nervous system)
somatic
autonomic
regulated by somatic nerves
voluntary muscles
regulates body's internal environment
(glands, involuntary muscles)
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
divisions of ANS
(autonomic nervous system)
sympathetic
parasympathetic
primary cell of nervous system
neuron
provide support and nutrition for neurons
in CNS
neuroglial cells
provide support and nutrition for neurons
in PNS
Schwann cells
neuroglial and Schwann cell functions
support, nutrition
incr. speed of impulses
role in memory
required for glucose uptake outside CNS, not in CNS
insulin
Nissl substances
endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes
in the neurons
type of neurons that continue to divide throughout life
olfactory
location of most cell bodies
CNS
name for packed cell bodies in CNS
nuclei
groups of cell bodies in PNS
ganglia
plexuses
receptive portion of neuron, receives and continues conduction of impulse
dendritic zone
carry nerve impulses away from the cell body
axon
cone-shaped, Nissl-free area of axon
where it leaves cell body
axon hillock
insulating lipid covering of axon, incr. conduction rate
myelin
interruptions in neurilemma and myelin sheath, site of axon branching
nodes of Ranvier
forms and maintains myelin sheath
Schwann cells
conduction if tightly wrapped myelin (myelinated neuron), ions flow between segments instead of along length
saltatory conduction
larger axons conduct impulses (faster, slower)
faster
four neuron configurations based on
projections from cell body
unipolar - one, early branching (retina)
pseudounipolar - axon into CNS, dendrites away from CNS (sensory)
bipolar - two (to rods/cones)
multipolar - multi (motor)
three functional types of neurons
sensory (afferent, pseudounipolar)
motor (efferent, multipolar)
associational (btwn neurons, multipolar)
transmit impulses from
CNS to effector organ
motor neuron
transmit impulse from
sensory to motor neuron
associational neurons
(interneurons)
sensory receptor for pain
nicoceptor
sensory receptor for body position
proprioceptor
neuroglia that fill spaces between
neurons and blood vessels in CNS
astrocytes
deposit myelin in CNS
oligodendroglia
(oligodendrocytes)
remove debris in CNS
microglia
if this is intact, damaged motor axon
can regrow to distal connection
neurilemma
if membrane potential change is insufficient, no action potential is generated: an ___ ___ ___ response
all-or-none response
region between adjacent neurons
synapse
synaptic cleft
four types of synaptic connections
axoaxonic (btwn axons)
axosomatic (axon to cell body)
axodendritic (axon to dendrite)
dendrodendritic (dendrite to dendrite)
transmission across synapse is through _________ and moves in _____ direction(s)
neurotransmitter chemicals
one
where neurotransmitters are formed
synaptic boutons
consequences of neurotransmitter binding
excitation (EPSPs)
inhibition (IPSPs)
effects of successive impulses received at same synapse
temporal summation
combined effects of impulses a single neuron transmits to different synapses at the same time
spatial summation
effect of EPSPs on membrane potential
facilitation
sites of acetylcholine neurotransmission
ANS synapses
brain
spinal cord
skeletal muscle
sites of norepinephrine neurotransmission
sympathetic ANS synapses
brain
spinal cord
sites of serotonin neurotransmission
brain
spinal cord
sites of dopamine neurotransmission
ANS synapses
brain
sites of substance P neurotransmission
nicoceptors
brain
spinal cord
GI tract