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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
three major divisions of the brain
forebrain
midbrain
hindbrain
divisions of forebrain (prosencephalon)
telencephalon
diencephalon
divisions of midbrain (mesencephalon)
corpora quadrigemina
tegmentum
cerebral peduncles
divisions of hindbrain (rhombencephalon)
cerebellum
pons
medulla oblongata
divisions of brain stem
midbrain
pons
medulla oblongata
parts of brain not included in brain stem
cerebellum, cerebrum
reticular activating system of brain stem is critical for __________
consciousness
divisions of telencephalon
cerebrum (incl. cerebral cortex)
basal ganglia
contains cell bodies and dendrites, gray matter
cerebral cortex
makes up white matter of cerebrum
myelinated nerve fibers
goal-oriented behavior, concentration, recall, inhibition of emotions
prefrontal area
efferent pathways outside the pyramids of the medulla oblongata
extrapyradmidal system
primary voluntary motor area, site of motor homunculus
precentral gyrus (gyrus = convolution)
cerebral impulses control function in the opposite side of the body
contralateral control
area for motor aspects of speech
Broca's area
area for somatic sensory input
parietal lobe
postcentral gyrus
area of primary visual cortex, receives input from retinas
occipital lobe
contains primary auditory cortex, Wernicke's area, long-term memory, balance, taste, smell
temporal lobes
connects the cerebral hemispheres
corpus callosum
major cerebral nuclei (gray matter)
are called _____ ganglia
basal
primitive behavior, emotions, biorhythms, smell, feeding behaviors
limbic system
divisions of diencephalon
epithalamus
thalamus
hypothalamus
subthalamus
aka epithalamus, secretes melantonin (circadian rhythms)
pineal gland
integrates afferent impulses to cerebral cortex, perception but not interpretation of sensations
thalamus
functions of hypothalamus
constant internal environment (temp, hormones)
implementation of behavioral patterns
carries CSF through midbrain
cerebral aqueduct
aqueduct of Sylvius
maintains balance and posture, conscious and unconscious muscle synergy
cerebellum
same side control of cerebellum
ipsilateral control
site of control of respiratory rate
and I:E ratio
pons
controls reflex activities such as heart rate, respiration, blood pressure, coughing, sneezing, swallowing, and vomiting
medulla oblongata
myelencephalon
sections of spinal cord
8 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
1 coccygeal
in center of gray matter (cell bodies) of spinal cord
central canal
parts of a reflex arc
receptor
afferent (sensory) neuron
association neuron (optional)
efferent (motor) neuron
effector organ (muscle/gland)
layers from skin to brain
skin
periosteum
cranium (incl. galea aponeurotica)
(epidural space)
meninges
dura mater
arachnoid
pia mater
brain
made by choroid plexuses
cerebrospinal fluid
expanded areas of the subarachnoid space
cisterns
sites of circulation of CSF
ventricles and subarachnoid space
site of CSF reabsorption
arachnoid villi
bones of vertebral column
7 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 fused sacral
4 fused coccygeal
potent natural vasodilator in the CNS
carbon dioxide
arterial blood supply to brain
internal carotids
vertebral arteries
drain venous plexuses and dural sinuses, major cerebral venous drainage
internal jugular veins
formed by astrocytes and tight junctions between endothelial cells
blood-brain barrier
bundles of neuron processes in the CNS
tracts