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148 Cards in this Set

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processes information about the strength, intensity, and temporal and spatial aspects of pain; result in prompt withdrawal from painful stimulus
Sensory
determines the individual's conditioned or learned approach/avoidance behaviors
Motivational
individual's learned behavior concerning the experience of pain (cultural preferences, life experience)
Cognitive
pain with a known case
somatogenic pain
pain for which no physical cause can be diagnosed
psychogenic pain
protective mechanism that alerts the individual to a condition or experience that is immediately harmful to the body
Acute pain
superficial or coming from the skin or close to the surface of the body, either sharp and well localized or dull, aching, and poorly localized
somatic
pain in internal organs, the abdomen, or skeleton; poorly localized n/v, hypotension, restlessness
visceral
pain that is present in an area removed or distant from its point of origin ex. heart attack
referred
persistent- usually defined as lasting at least 3-6 months, normally more than 6 months; persistent or intermittent
chronic pain
chronic pain results from abnormal processing of sensory information by the peripheral and CNS
Neuropathic pain
chronic pain- the result of trauma or disease to peripheral nerves, such as diabetic neuropathy
Peripheral pain
caused by a lesion or dysfunction in the brain or spinal cord
central pain
severe pain occuring along the course of a peripheral nerve (pain from a damaged peripheral nerve)
neuralgia
normally occurs 1-2 weeks after injury to the brachial plexus, median nerves, or syatic nerves. may cause discoloration
causalgia
after a peripheral nerve injury and causes continuous severe burning pain, vasospasm, and vasomotor changes; light tough may cause pain
Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophies
increased sensitivity and decreased pain threshold to tactile and painful stimuli
hyperesthesias
2nd most common chronic pain condition; pain results from muscle spasm, tenderness, or stiffness
Myofascial pain syndrome
pain results from muscle spasm, tenderness, stiffness
Myofascial pain syndrome
loss of ability to identify source of pain on one side of the body
Hemiagnosia
pain experience in amputated limb
phantom limb pain
small hypersensitive regions in muscle or connective tissues
Trigger points
the lowest intensity at which a stimulus is perceived as pain
pain threshold
the amount of time or intensity of pain that an individual will endure before initiating pain responses
pain tolerance
achieved through precise balancing of heat production, heat conservation, and heat loss
temperature regulation
Temperature and sleep are regulated by what?
hypothalamus
"resetting of the hypothalamic thermostat"
fever
cooling of core temperature in body
hypothermia
marked warming of core temperature
hyperthermia
severe, spasmodic cramps in the abdomen and extremities that follow prolonged sweating and associated with sodium loss
heat cramps
results from prolonged high core or environmental temperatures
heat exhaustion
a potentially lethal result of overstressed theromoregulatory center
heat stroke
potentially lethal complication of a rare inherited muscle disorder that may be triggered by inhaled anesthetics and depolarizing muscle relaxants
malignant hyperthermia
an active, multiphase process
sleep
when does REM sleep occur?
every 90 min beginning 1 to 2 hours after non-REM begins
dreaming occurs during this sleep phase
REM
REM sleep accounts for how much sleep time?
20-25%
non-REM sleep accounts for how much sleep time?
75-80%
inability to fall asleep
insomnia
a type of sleep-disordered breathing, caused by increaed airflow obstuction
Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome
upper airway obstuction recurring during sleep with excessive snoring
obstuctive sleep apnea (OSA)
unusual behaviors occuring during sleep
Parasomnias
Somnambulism
sleepwalking
night terrors
characterized by sudden apparent arousals in which the child expresses intense fear or emotion
one eye deviates from the other when the person is looking at an object
strabismus
reduced vision in the affected eye; reduced or dimmed vision
Amblyopia
involuntary rhythmic movement of the eyes
nystagmus
cloudy area in ocular lens commonly as a result of degeneration; yellowing
cataract
normal ocular pressure (IOP)
12-20 mm Hg
obstruction to the flow of the aqueous fluid leads to increased IOP; greater than 20
Glaucoma
a severe and irreversible loss of vision and a major cause of blindness in older individuals
Age-related mascular degeneration (AMD)
occurs when a change in the outer or middle ear impairs conduction of the sound from the outer to the inner ear
conductive hearing loss
caused by impairment of the organ of Corti or its central connections
sensorineural hearing loss
most common form of sensorineural hearing loss and is especially common in elderly
Presbycusis
caused by a combination of conductive and sensorineural losses
mixed hearing loss
the individual does not respond to voice and appears to not hear
fuctional hearing loss
disorder of the middle ear
meniere disease
infection of the outer ear (swimmers ear)
Otitis externa
infection of ear in infants or children
Otitis media
associated with ear pain, fever, irritability, inflamed tympanic membrane, and fluid in the middle ear
acute otitis media (AOM)
the presence of fluid in the middle ear w/o symptoms of acute infection
Otitis media with effusion (OME)
Primary taste sensations
sour, salty, sweet, bitter
impaired sense of smell
hyposmia
complete loss of smell
anosmia
smelling odors that are not really present
olfactory hallucinations
abnormal or perverted sense of smell
parosmia
decrease in taste sensation
hypogeusia
an absense of the sense of taste
ageusia
perversion of taste in which substances posses an unpleasant flavor
dysgeusia
5 categories of neurological fuction
level of consciousness
pattern of breathing
pupillary changes
oculomotor responses
motor responses
loss of ability to think rapidly and clearly
confusion
beginning loss of consciousness
disorientation
limited spontaneous movement or speech
lethargy
mild to moderate reduction in arousal with limited response to the environment
obtundation
a condition of deep sleep or unresponsiveness from where the person may be aroused or caused to open eyes only by vigorous and repeated stimulation
stupor
altered level of conciousness or level of arousal; no verbal response to external stimuli
coma
associated with purposeful movement on stimulation
light coma
associated with nonpurposeful movement only on stimulation
coma
assoicated with unresponsiveness or no response to any stimuli
deep coma
causes of coma
hypoxia, hypoglycemia, being put into a coma, toxins, drugs, infection, meningitis, tumors, trauma, emboli, hemorrhage, edema, etc
Brain death
completion of all therapeutic procedures, unresponsiveness coma, no spontaneous respiration, no ocular responses, flat EEG, presistence of these signs for 30 min-1 hr 6 hrs after onset, test indicating absense of cerebral circulation
death of the cerebral hemispheres exclusive of the brain stem and cerebellum
cerebral death (irreversible coma)
when a person loses cerebral function and brain stem can maintain crude waking state
vegetative state
survivors of coma; these persons may follow simple commands, blink, smile, gesture yes/no
Minimally Conscious State (MCS)
the individual cannot communicate through speech or body movement but is fully conscious
Lock-In Syndrome
the breathing pattern has a smooth increase in the rate and depth of breathing which peaks and is followed by a gradual decrease
Cheyne-Stokes respirations
A prolonged inspiratory cramp
apneusis
completely irregular breathing occurs
ataxic breathing
decorticate
flexion of arms, wrists, and fingers with adduction in extremities
decerebrate
all 4 extremities in rigid extension, forarm and plantar extension of feet
sudden, explosive, disorderly discharge of cerebral neurons and is characterized by a sudden, transient alteration in brain function
seizure
a parital seizure
aura
early CM such as malaise, headache, and a sense of depression
prodroma
a state of muscle contraction
tonic phase
a state of alternating concentration and relaxtion of muscles
clonic phase
the time period immediately following the cessation of seizure activity
postictal phase
a failure to recognize the form and nature of objects
agnosia
Types of agnosia
tactile=touch
spatial=unable to find their way around the house
agraphia=inability to write
impairment of comprehension of production of language
dysphagia
loss of the comprehension or production of language
aphasia
result from cerebral dysfunction secondary to drug intoxication, metabolic disorder, or nervous system disease
Acute confusional states (ACS)
an ACS associated with overactivity, typically develops over 2-3 days seen in difficulty concentrating, restlessness, irritability
delirium
a progressive failure of many cerebral functions not caused by impaired level on consciousness
Chronic: Dementia
Alzheimer's Disease
type of dementia, decrease in acetylcholine secreting neurons, cause- unknown, plaquelike material known as senile plaque
Intracranial pressure (ICP)
normal is 5-15 mm Hg
may result from an increase in intracranial content (as occurs with tumor growth), edmea, excess CSF, or hemorrhage
Increased intracranial pressure (IICP)
the uniform resistance may be interrupted by a series of brief jerks resulting in movements much like a rachet
Cogwheel
decreased muscle tone
hypotonia
increased muscle tone
hypertonia
decreased movement
hypokinesia
excessive movement
hyperkinesia
abnormal involuntary movement
dyskinesia
a decrease in associated and voluntary movements; decrease in dopamine; Parkinson's
akinesia
slowness of voluntary movements
bradykinesia
Parkinson's disease
degenerative disease involving dopamine receptors
bruising of the brain
contusion
tearing of the veins and a rapidly forming pool of blood
hematomas
a blow to the brain
concussion
whiplash
jerking and streching of the neck muscles
a structural defect of the spine
spondylolysis
occurs when a vertebra slides forward in relation to the vertebra; graded from 1-4, normally in L5-S1
spondylolisthesis
a narrowing of the spinal canal that causes pressure on the spinal cord
spinal stenosis
rupture of an intervetrebral disk usually is caused by trauma, DDD, or both
Herniated Intervertebral Disc
inflammation of sciatic nerve
Sciatica
loss of bowel or bladder function, numbness or inflammation in extremity
Neuropathy
nerve roots are injured or damaged by inflammation or trauma
Radiculopathy
most frequently occuring neurologic disorder
Cerebralvascular disorders
leading cause of disability in the U.S.
Cerebrovascular accidents
arise from arterial occulsions caused by thrombi formation in arteries suppling the brain or inracranial vessels
thrombotic
temporary decreases in brain blood flow resulting in brief changes in brain function including changes in vision, speech, motor function, or symptoms of dizziness or loss of conciousness
Transient ischemia attack (TIA)
are smaller than 1 cm in diameter and involve the small proliferating arteries
Lacunar strokes
an area of the brain loses its blood supply beacuse of vascular occulsion
cerebral infarction
weakening of the wall of the artery
aneurysm
a tangled mass of dilated blood vessels creating abnormal channels between the arterial and venous systems
AVM Arterio-venous Malformation
blood escapes from a defective or injured vessel into the subarachnoid space
subarachnoid hemorrhage
infection of the meninges
meningitis
inability to extend the leg with the hip flexed at a right angle; patient is laying down and you try to bend their leg up to their abdomen and straighten it
Kernig's sign
patient laying down and bend neck forward, makes them flex their hips and knees
Brudzinski sign
Causes of Meningitis
Bacterial, viral, fungal, TB
localized collections of pus within the parenchyma of the brain and spinal cord
abcess
an actue febrile illness, viral origin, normally from mosquito of herpes virus
Encephalitis
Lyme Disease
caused by deer tick
degenerative disorder diffusely involving lower and upper motor neurons resulting in progressive muscle weakness
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
disorder involving destruction of the CNS myelin.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue. defect in nerve impulse transmission at the neuromuscular junction (in CNS)
Myasthenia Gravis
acquired inflammatory disease caused by viral illness, causes progressive paralysis of muscle, starts at feet and moves up
Guillain Barre Syndrome
compromise both encapsulated and nonencapsulated or invasive tumors
gilomas
expand and infiltrate into the normal surrounding brain tissue
astrocytoma