• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/41

Click to flip

41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Symptoms of Brain Attack (5)
Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination
Sudden severe headache w/o known cause
Sudden confusion or trouble speaking or understanding speech
Sudden numbness or weakness of face, arm
Troubleseeing in one or both eyes
3 Steps to Recognizing a Stroke
Ask Individual To:
Smile
Raise both arms
Speak a simple sentence
Stroke "SAFE" Signs
Speech
Arms
Face
Eyes
Risk Factors of a Brain Attack (13)
HTN
DM
Heart Dz
A fib
Smoking
Substance abuse (cocaine)
ETOH
Obseity
Sedentary lifestyle
Sleep Disorders
Stress
Elevated cholesterol/lipids/triglycerides
Symptoms of TIA (4)
Deficits in:
Visual
Motor
Sensory
Speech
What is Reversible Ischemic Neurological Deficit?
Like TIA, but lasts longer (up to a week)
Conditions that Cause Brain Attacks (4)
localized hypoxia
global hypoxia
Emobli
thrombus
What is critical before giving drugs in a CVA?
Differential diagnosis
CVA vs. lesion/trauma
CVA symptoms? (4)
contralateral to injury
cranial nerves sam eside
multiple emobli or anterior cerebral artery bilateral symptoms
What are two types of CVAs
Ischemic and occlusive
Two types of ischemic CVAs
Thrombotic: slower process over time; ischemia progresses to symptoms
Hemorrhagic: vessel wall integrity disrupted, bleeding into brain tissue, vasospasm after rupture = ischemia, aneurysm, IC or SA hemorrhage
Types of Diagnostic Imaging for CVAs (4)
CT Scan
MRI
Ultrasound
ECG
CVA Airway Medical Goals (4)
Swallowing assessment
Upright in bed if awake
Lying on side if unconscious
Suction Equipment available
CVA Breathing Medical Goals (2)
Monitor rate and depth of breathing
Monitor O2 Sat
CVA Circulation Medical Goals (2)
Maintain cerebral blood flow (BP monitor & HOB low for flow, high to drain)
Watch for seizures, high ICP
CVA Medications for Ischemic and Hemorrhagic
Ischemic: anti-platelet, anticoagulant, thrombolytic
Hemorrhagic: antihypertensive
Immediate Hemorrhagic Stroke Goals (4)
Minimize further bleeding
Control Systolic BP (<130)
Avoid anti-platelet & Anticoagulation drugs
Restrict activity
Immediate Ischemic Stroke Goals (3)
STOP clot from growing (heparin)
DISSOLVE clot (thrombolytics)
REMOVE clot (surgery)
During what time frame should thrombolytics be given to receive the most benefit?
3 hours of symptom onset
Complications of Brain attack (Post-hospital)(6)
Paralysis; muscle spasms
Sensor, motor, visual impairments
Language, cognitive, memory changes
Unstable emotions, fatigue
Seizures (glial scarring)
Psychological impacts
Complications of Brain Attack (In Hospital) (8)
Cerebral Edema
Increased ICP
Aspiration from swallowing difficulty (cranial nerves
Hypoventilation, atelectasis, pneumonia
DVT
Pulmonary Emoblism
UTI
Skin breakdown, malnutrition, contractures
Acute Goals for CVA (3)
Stabilize medical and neuro status
Initiate Plan to Prevent Complications & alleviate disabilities
Acute-care nurses are the patient's FIRST rehabilitation nurse
Actions for nurses for CVA (7)
Monitor vitals, know individual targets
Maintain hydration & nutrition
Identify Risks & Prevent Complications:
- Aspiration: swallow check 1st 72 hours
- DVT & skin breakdown: move pt out of bed q4
- UTI: remove cath in 3 days
- Contractures & extremities damage; support posture; extremeties in position of function)
What to teach a patient with homonymous hemianopsia
Turn head towards deficit side
Traumatic Brain Injuries Assessment
- LOC, amnesia, SZ, visual disturbances, concomitant disorders (dysrhythmias, syncope, CVA)
- C-spine precautions
- ABCs
- CT scans, C-spine films
- Check for CSF leaks (nose, ears)
What GCS score indicates Coma
<7
What symptoms may happen alongside concussions (6)
Hypotension
Headache
Irritability
Confusion
Unsteady Gait
Visual Disturbances
Diffuse axonal injury: s/sx (5)
Stretching/tearing neurons
LOC immediate and prolongued (>6 hrs)
Cerebral Edema, brain stem injury possible
Contusion s/sx (9)
Bruise @ site of injury w/ ALOC
hemiparesis
Agitation
Disorientation
Combative
Aggressive
Aphasia
Coma
Basilar Skull Fx s/sx (3)
CSF leak nose, ears
Carotid hemorrhage
Damage cranial nerves
Signs of Basilar Skull Fx (3)
Battle's Sign
Raccoon Eye
Halo Sign
IICP as a secondary brain injury d/t (7)
Edema
Hemorrhge
Hematoma
Hydrocephalus
Hypoxemia
Hypercapnia
Systemic Hypotension
Subdural hematomas are ___?
Venous bleeds beneath dura - slow bleeding
Different type of subdural hematomas (3)
Acute - 48 hrs to develop
Subacute - 48 hours to 2 weeks
Chronic - 2 wees to months
Intracerebral hemorrhage & s/sx (2)
Blood accumulation within brain tissue d/t tearing small arteries and veins
Progresses to IICP relative to location of bleed
Subarachnoid hematoma/hemorrhage & s/sx
d/t blunt trauma: vessels tear, hemorrhage
Nuchal rigidity
Severe headache
ALOC
Contralateral hemiparesis
Ipsilateral dilated pupil
Brain herniation in brain injuries
downward shift of brain into brainstem d/t increased ICP
Vasogenic edema in brain injuries
Edema from the vessels
Systemic HTN in brain injuries
d/t body wanting to get blood to the brain
Hydrocephalus in brain injuries
d/t diation of the ventricles r/t impaired CSF absorption or obstruction to flow
Complications of Brain injuries (7)
Cerebral edema, IICP
Dysphagia, aphasia, coma
Alterations in cognitive functions
DI, SIADH, hyperthermia, seizures
Headache, CSF leak
Cranial nerve impairments
Major Complication is IICP