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85 Cards in this Set

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What are pseudounipolar cells and where are they located?
Neurons with a single process that divides into 2 branches one which extends to a peripheral process and another that extends to the CNS, cells of the dorsal root ganglion
What are bipolar cells and where are they located
Neurons with one denrite and one axon. They are found in the cochlear and vestibular ganglia, retina and olfactory mucosa. I.E. organs of special sense
What are mulitpolar cells and where are they located
Neurons with one axon and multiple dendrites. They are the most abundant and located in places like ventral horn of the spinal cord
What enzyme breaks down acetylcholine?
Acetylcholinesterase
What is the order of connective tissue of a peripheral nerve from out to in?
Epineurium --> Perineurium --> Endoneurium
What are the differences btw afferent and efferent fibers?
Afferent --> conduct fibers toward the CNS and away from the body

Efferent --> conduct fibers away from the CNS
What is the key role of the astrocyte?
They form the bld brain barrier
What are the roles of microglia?
They phagocytize things
Which ion is primarily responsible for the resting membrane potential?
Resting membrane potential is formed largely bc the neuron is permeable to K+ and impermeable to intracellular anions.
What anions/ions have a high intracellular concentration?
Potassium
What anions/ions have a LOW intracellular conc?
Calcium, Sodium, and Chlorine
What is responsible for maintaining low intracellular sodium and high intracellular potassium?
Na/K ATPase
What kind of channels are key for action potential propagation?
Voltage gated Na and K Channels
What channel is key in neurotransmitter rls
Voltage gated Ca++ channels located more on axon membrane
In the terms of ions what does a hyperpolarizing current do?
Add - ions or remove + ions
What does depolarization / hyperpolarization do to the charge of the membrane?
Depolarize - inside of cell less negative
Hyperpolarize - inside of the cell more negative
What drug blocks voltage gated Na+ channels?
Tetrodotoxin
What drug blocks K+ channels?
TEA - Tetrethylammonium
Can catecholamine like Ach be uptaken by the presynaptic membrane?
Yes
What kind of receptor can Ach bind to to create an EPSP (Ecitatory postsynaptic potential)
Nicotinic Receptor

EPSPs depolarize the membrane
What causes IPSPs
Hyperpolarizeation of the membrane via opening of K+ channels or influx of Chlorine
What are the 2 ways that synaptic potentials summate to allow for an action potential?
Spatial - summate all the different inputs

Temporal - repeated firing of a presynaptic neuron
What are the 4 criteria that make something a neurotransmitter?
1) synthesized by the neuron
2) Rls by presyn neuron in a lrg enough quantity to exert effect
3) action mimicked by exogenous applic
4) Mechanism to remove substance exists
Where is Ach found?
Motor neurons, ALL autonomic preganglionic and parasym post ganglionic
What role does Ach play?
Memory
What role does norepi play?
Alerting Mechnism
Where is norepinephrine found
Post ganglionic neurons of the ANS
Where is dopamine found?
Substantia nigra, midbrain and hypothalamus
Where is serotonin found
Raphe nucleus of the brainstem
WHat does Glutamate do?
Primary excitatory NT of the CNS
What does glycine do?
Inhibitor of the spinal cord
What does GABA do?
Inhibitor in: basal ganglia, cerebellar purkinje cells, and spinal cord
What determines whether an transmitter is excitatory or inhibitory?
The receptor that it binds to
What is the problem in the dz Myasthenia Gravis
Autoantibodies are produced to ACh Nicotinic receptors
What is a treatment regiment for myasthenia gravis?
ANTIcholinesterase that prevents degradation of Ach at the synapse
What is the function of satellite cells in the PNS?
They envelope ganglion cells and are analagous to schwann cells.
Which synapse is slower somatic motor or autonomic?
Autonomic
Where does the sympathetic nervous system originate from?
intermediolateral cell column T1-L2
Describe the neuronal length of Sympathetic fibers?
Short preganglionic, long post ganglionic
Describe the neuronal length of parasympathetic fibers?
Long preganglionic and short post ganglionic
What is the origin of the parasympathetic nervous system?
CN III, VII, IX, X
What is the parasympathetic pathway of CN III?
oculomotor nuc of midbrain --> CN III --> ciliary ganglion --> ciliary muscle and sphincter pupillae
What is the parasympathetic pathway of CN VII?
superior salivary nuc(medulla) --> CN VII --> Submandibular ganglion --> submandibular and sublingual glands
What is the parasympathetic pathway of CN IX?
inf salivary nuc (medulla) --> CN IX --> Otic ganglion --> parotid ganglion
What is the parasympathetic pathway of CN X?
dorsal nuc of the vagus ( medulla) --> periph ganglion --> multiple organs (hrt, esophagus, stomach, intestines --> l colic flexure
What types of compounds are adrenergic receptors sensitive to?
Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, Isoproterenol
What do Adrenergic alpha receptors do?
Excitatory response of postsyn sym cells ie contract
What do adrenergic beta receptors do?
Usually inhibit except hrt where is stim incrs hrt rate and force
What do nicotinic receptors do?
Always excitatory. Loc NMJ Nicotine mimics action of Ach
What do Muscarinic receptors do?
They are inhibitory or excitatory, found at post ganglionic
What gyrus in the brain does the corticospinal tract come from?
Pre central gyrus
What kind of interaction primarily is found in EPSPs?
Axodendritic and asymmetrical synapse
What is the common vesicle shape in IPSPs?
FLAT
What kind of interaction primarily is found in IPSPs?
Axosomatic and symmetric synapse
What is the common vesicle shape in EPSPs?
Spherical
What NTs are usually involved in the transmission of EPSPs?
Glutamate in brain or spinal cord
What NTs are usually involved in the transmission of IPSPs?
Brain - GABA
Spinal Cord - Glycine
What is the difference between ionotorpic and metabotropic channel?
Ionotropic channels let ions in and out, act fast
What is the difference between ionotorpic and metabotropic channel?
Metabotropic channels act via a second messanger system and are hence slow
What is different about excitation and inhibition in the retina?
excitation - hyperpolarization

inhibition - depoloarization
So in retina Glutamate inhibits bc cause depolarization
Describe pathway of recipricol inhibition
1) Excitatory neuron send side axon to inhibitory interneuron
2) Inhibitory neuron than inhibits the motor neurons of the other muscle
Describe pathway of recurrent inhibition
1) Collateral axon on excitatory neuron goes to Renchaw cell
2) Renchaw cell goes to the same alpha motor neuron and inhibits its firing
Describe pathway of presynaptic inhibition
An inhibitor interneuron axon synapses with an excitatory axon, toning the action of the excitatory neuron.
What proteins play a role in gap junctions?
Connexins
What is the cause of Charcot Marie Tooth Disease?
Caused by peripheral neuropathy and linked to a problem in connexin 32
Describe the steps of NT rls
1) Spread of action potential to tip of axon
2) Influx of Ca++
3) Ca++/Calmodulin dependent kinase phosphorylate vesicle
4) Vesicles rls Ach
5) Ach binds to nicotinic receptors
What specific protein is phosphorylated by calmodulin dependent kinase?
synaptotagmin
What does acetylcholineesterase break Ach down into?
Choline + Acetate
What removes choline from the synaptic cleft?
Choline Acetyl Transferase
What does the drug Curare do?
Binds to the alpha subunit of the Ach receptor, blocking the binding of Ach
What does neostigmine or physophostigmine do?
Inhibit acetylcholineesterase
What do tetanus and botulinin toxins do to neurotransmitter rls?
They prevent it via cleavage of proteins associated with neurotransmitter release like synaptobrevin
Where are the synapses in the peripheral nervous system?
All Terminal Synapses
Where are the synapses in the central nervous system?
Mostly terminal some en passant(on side of axon)
Where are the synapses in the ANS?
Primarily en passant
What is another name for serotonin?
INdolamine
What is an example of an imitozoline?
Histamine
Where does electrotransmission through gap junctions occur?
Hypothalamus
Where is Ach synthesized?
In the cytoplasm then transported into vesicels
Where is Ach in the pons?
Dorsolateral tegmentum of the pons
Where is Ach located in the forebrain?
Basal nucleus of Meynert
What enzyme makes glutamate?
glutaminase from glutamine
What is the reuptake mechanism for glutamate?
Reuptake by glial cells or presynaptic neuron
What happens if there is too much glutamate?
Overstimulation and cell dies
What is the pathway to make GABA?
glutamine --> glutamate --> L glutamic Acid 1 decarboxylase