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38 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
define neuroglia?
major supporting and nurturing component of the nervous system
what are the three classifications of neurons?
multipolar, bipolar, unipolar (pseudo)
do dendrites release or recieve NT?
receive
gray matter is composed of what?
nerve nuclei (cell bodies of the CNS)
where would grey matter be found in the spinal cord? the brain?
interior of the spinal cord, exterior of brain
what type of neurons makeup sensory cells? interneurons? motor neurons?
pseudounipolar and bipolar, multipolar, and multipolar
aside from neuron polarity, what other classification criteria is used?
type of NT, excitatory vs. inhibitory, length of axon (golgi type I or II, projection neuron)
what occurs at the synaptic end bulb?
NT release
these are angular granule bodies found in the cell body of a neuron.
nissl material
what is the chemical composition and function of acetylcholine?
it is a non-amino acid derived small molecule transmitter. It is used at myoneural junctions, all parasymp. synapses, and preganglionic sympathetic synapses
what is the chemical quality and function of NE as a NT?
it is a small molecule NT, biogenic amine, and catecholamine that is used in post ganglionic symp. synapses except for sweat glands
what is the chemical qualities and function of the NT glutamic acid?
it is a small molecule transmitter and amino acid that is used in presnaptic sensory and cortex neurons and it is the most common excitatory NT of the CNS
what is the chemical quality and function of the NT gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
it is a small molecule transmitter and amino acid that is the most common inhibitory NT of the CNS
what is the chemical quality and function of the NT dopamine?
it is a small molecule transmitter, a biologic amine and catecholamine. It is used as inhibitory NT in the basal ganglia of the CNS
what is the chemical quality and function of the NT serotonin?
it is a small molecule transmitter and biologic amine that inhibits pain, controls mood, and regulates sleep
what is the chemical quality and function of the NT glycine?
it is a small molecule transmitter and biologic amine. It is inhibitory and in the spinal cord
what is the chemical qualities and functions of endorphins?
it is a neuropeptide and opiod peptide that is an analgesic (unsure of transmission)
what are the chemical qualities and functions of enkephalins?
they are neuropeptides and opiod peptides that are analgesic
distinguish between protoplasmic and fibrous astrocytes.
protoplasmics are found in the grey matter of the CNS and have more processes while the fibrous astrocytes are found in the white matter of the CNS
what are the functions of astrocytes?
NT metabolism, ion balance for AP's, brain development, help form blood brain barrier, supporting network for neurons, and provide a link between neurons and blood vessels
these are the most common glial cells in the CNS with relatively fewer processes and a round/ oval cell body.
oligodendrites
what is the function of oligodendrites?
support neurons, produce myelin (each cell wraps myelin around several axons
these glial cells have few processes, are derived from monocytes, and can migrate to the site of injury.
microglia
what are the functions of microglia?
macrophages of the CNS
describe ependymal cells (not function)
epithelial cells arranged in a single layer that can be squamos or columnar, many are ciliated
what is the function of ependymal cells?
they form a continuous epithelial lining for the ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord. They secrete CSF and possibly assist in circulation of CSF in these areas
what are the neuroglia found in the CNS?
ependymal cells, astrocytesl, microglia, and oligodendrocytes
what are the neuroglia found in the PNS?
schwann cells and satellite cells
what are the function and structure of schwann cells?
they are flattened cells arranged around the axons in the PNS that produce the myelin sheath around a single axon in the PNS
what is the function and structure of the satellite cells?
they are flattened cells surrounding the cell bodies of neurons in the ganglia (thus in PNS) and they are used to support these neurons
what neuroglia have perivascular feet?
astrocytes
how do schwann cells form the myelin sheaths?
the cell circles the axon many times, squezing the cytoplasm out with each circle (note oligodendrocytes do this the same way except around mutliple axons instead of just one)
what are the four types of synapses?
axodendritic, axosomatic, axoaxonic, and dendrodendritic
1. axon
2. axolemma
3. mitochondria
4. glial process
5. synaptic vessicles
6. synaptic cleft
7. presynaptic density
8. postsynaptic density
9. postsynaptic cell
label
1. epineurium
2. perineurium
3. endoneurium
4. schwann cells
5. axon
label
bipolar sensory neurons detect what kinds of senses?
sepcial such as vision, hearing, smell, balance...
psedounipolar neurons detect what kind of sensation?
in all nonspecial (taste, hearing, vision, etc) sensation of the cord and the cranial nerves
what are the roles of golgi type I, type II and projection neurons?
I are long axons, thpe II are short, usually used to communicate in the same spinal segment, projection project to the cortex or from the cortex