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82 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Depression and suicide often associated with hypersecretion of _
cortisol
More likely, depression arises from problems in the _
hypothalamus
Depression is associated with (reduced/increased) slow wave sleep,(shorter,longer) period of REM sleep, (increased/decreased) core body temperature and abnormalities in the nocturnal secretion of _, _ and _
reduced; shorter; increased.

Cortisol, GH, and prolactin
MAOIs are inhibitors of _
enzymes responsible for the degradation of bioamines
TCAs work by _
blocking reuptake of serotonine or NE
SSRIs work by _
selectively inhibiting the reuptake or serotonin
The most effective short term treatment for severe depression and mania is _
electroconvulsive therapy.

This involves the induction of a generalized brain seizure (6-8 times at 2 day intervals)
_is a mood stabilizer (evens out the highs and lows), and works by affecting the phosphoinositol pathway.
Lithium carbonate

It ultimately blocks ca increase and reduces the responsiveness of the neurons in the IP3 pathway
Regarding olfaction: receptor neurons send out (un/myelinated) axons grouped into bundles called _, collectively form cranial nerve I
unmyelinated

fila olfactoria
axons of olfactory receptor neurons contact neurons of the olfactory bulb in complexes of synapses called _
olfactory glomeruli

All neurons expressing a given receptor converge on only one or two glomeruli
Mitral/Tufted cells are (excitatory/inhibitory) projection neurons that use what NT?

PG & G cells are (excitatory/inhibitory) interneurons that use what NT?
excitatory, glutamate

inhibitory; GABA, DA and various peptides
With regards to olfaction, granular cells _
enchance contrast between M/T cells by acting as a filter to restrict the signal coming from a specific glomerulus to a signal generated only by high affinity odorant

This allows you to distinguish between perpetually similar scents
The lateral olfactory tract first contacts the olfactory bulb to the anterior olfactory nucleus (contralaterally/ipsilaterally). This nucleus contacts the _
ipsilaterally

olfactory bulb and the anterior nucleus on the opposite side.
At the level of the olfactory tubercle, the olfactory tract continues as the _ and terminates where?
lateral olfactory stria

in the primary olfactory cortex.
The medial orbitofrontal cortex appears particularly important in the integration of _ and _
olfactory, taste and other food related cues that produce the experience of flavor
The taste experiences include _
sweet, salty, sour, bitter and umami
(T/F) taste buds are neurons
False. They are a complex of supporting cells and taste receptor cells
The _ end of the receptor cells in taste buds is covered with microvilli where taste transduction occur.
apical
In the tongue, taste buds are located in 3 types of papillae: _ (25% of taste buds), _(25%), and _(50%).
_papillae are nongustatory.
fungiform,
foliate
and
circumvallate


Filiform
The locations that the taste sensations are more sensitive:

sweet most at _ sour at _, bitter in the _ and salty in the _ of the tongue.
the tip,
edges
back
anterior edges
Taste transduction begins when soluble chemicals interact with receptors located on the exposed _ of receptor cells.
apical microvilli
Some sweet, sour and bitter –tasting compounds used _ receptors.

Umami –tasting compounds uses a _receptors.

Other receptors such as those for bitter, salty, and sour ..._
G protein coupled

metabotropic variant of the glutamate

directly interact with ion channels

Activation of these receptors produces either depolarization or hyperpolarization through a second messenger (cAMP, IP3)
tastes buds on soft palate are carried through the _nerve via _ganglion & _ nerve
greater petrosal

pterygopalatine

lesser palatine nerve (CN V2)
SVA fibers carrying taste enter the brainstem, descend in the _ tract and terminate in the _ nucleus.
solitary, solitary
Rostral solitary nucleus projection ascend (contralaterally/ipsilaterally) with fibers in the_ tract to terminate in the _
ipsilaterally

central tegmental

ventral posteromedial nucleus
Regarding taste projections: The VPM projects through the _ to the _ and _. This pathway is involved in taste discrimination.
posterior limb of the internal capsule

frontal operculum and anterior insular cortex.
Orbitofrontal cortex is involved in _
appreciation of flavor, food reward and control of feeding.
The lateral posterior orbitofrontal cortex receives inputs from _ and integrates _,_,_
primary taste cortex

taste, olfactory and visual cues associated with ingestion of food.
The transduction mechanisms of irritants such capsaicin or menthol is the activation of _channels, the _channels,
cationic

TRP (transient receptor potential)
Complete loss of taste is called _, for this to happen, it requires _
ageusia

bilateral lesions of cranial nerve VII and IX, or else local damage to taste buds.
Bilateral hemianopsia is most likely a lesion or compression of _. This is an indicator of _
optic chiasm

pituitary tumor
Increased appetite is associated with what part of the hypothalamus?
ventromedial hypothalamus
Decreased appetite is associated with what part of the hypothalamus?
lateral hypothalamus
Pt presents with intermittent daytime hypersomnolence, you start to think about what region of the hypothalamus?
tuberomammilary region
Lesions of the _ nucleus of the hypothalamus can produce hyperthermia
anterior hypothalamic

- the anterior part has an excitatory effect on pans
What pituitary hormones are associated with the following abnormalities?
A. Polyuria, increased thirst
B Impotence
C. cold intolerance
D. Fatigue and decreased muscle endurance
E. Decreased appetite and weight loss
1. ADH
2. LH AND FSH
3. TSH
4. ACTH
5. ACTH
_ is the encoded information is converted into a form that can be permanently stored. Associated with structural changes in the brain.
Consolidation
What are the two primary types of memory?
declarative and nondeclarative

These primary types of memory are associated with different circuitries that can be distinguished by different types of damage.
Each new explicit memory is formed by four sequential processes, what are they?
encoding, consolidation, storage, retrieval
Encoding-information for memory is assembled from different sensory systems by the _
association cortices
Consolidation- information is transformed by _ and _
hippocampus and surrounding areas cortex
Storage- consolidated information is transferred to _
association cortex
Right hippocampal damage produces greater deficits in memory for _, whereas left hippocampal damage produces greater deficits in memory for _
spatial representation

words, objects or people.
The consolidation process is particularly sensitive to processes which damage or interfere with the _

The_ area is particularly sensitive to anoxia
hippocampus.

CA 1
_ is the first region to degenerate in Alzheimer’s disease.
Entorhinal cortex
There are two forms of associative learning, what are they?
Classical (Pavlov) conditioning involve learning a relationship between two stimul

Operant conditioning involve learning a relationship behavior and the consequences of that behavior (call trial and error )
Emotional memory involves the _ as a nodal stage in the association of exteroceptive sensory inputs
amygdala
Procedural memory is composed of two subsystems; one involves the _ and mediates habit and skills.

The other involves the _ and mediates sensori-motor adaptation
striatum

cerebellum
Patients with amygdala damage fail to develop _.
fear conditioning
The process of converting information in working memory to long term memory is _
consolidation.
Episodic (autobiographical) knowledge about time and place involved the _
prefrontal cortex.

Frontal lobe damage is associated tendency to forget how information was acquired: source amnesia.
The inability to form new memories results in _ whereas difficult in retrieving memories already established is _
anterograde amnesia

retrograde amnesia
Sensitization as a result of synaptic connections on presysnaptic terminals (presynaptic facilitation) is believed to have the potential for short and long term effects. It requires a _
facilitatory interneuron
The effect of the facilitatory interneuron will be to enhance the amount of neurotransmitter released by sensory neuron,
Short term sensitization can occur by the activation of metabotropic receptors and associated second messenger pathways (cAMP & PKA / DAG & PKC) to broaden the action potential by inhibiting _ channels and act on _ channels to increase it's influx in sensory neuron.
K+

calcium
Long term potentiation is produced in _ of _neurons in the hippocampus and in mossy fiber terminals of the _gyrus. It is also produced in the perforant path.
Schaffer collaterals; pyramidal

dentate
Long Term Potentiation induction depends on _ increase either in the pre or post synaptic cell
calcium
Regarding LTP, The increase in Ca++ concentration in a dendrite lead to the activation of a cascade that increases the number of _receptors
AMPA ; (ionotropic glutamate receptors, depolarizing).

The addition of additional AMPA receptors in the postsynaptic membrane can lead to enhanced efficacy of the postsynaptic response.
The perisylvian structures for implementation include a motor speech area (Broca’s area) and a language comprehension center (Wernicke’s area) that are linked by the _
arcuate fasciculus
The perisylvian structures for implementation include _ and _ areas that are linked by the arcuate fasciculus
motor speech area (Broca’s area) and a language comprehension center (Wernicke’s area)
Comprehension of written words (reading) involves the transfer of information from visual cortex to the _
angular gyrus.
Important areas that mediate between implementation and conceptual systems include _(4)
Posterior sensory association cortices, left prefrontal cortex, inferotemporal region, and temporal pole
For classification purposes the clinician must consider three factors:
What are they?
Fluency
Comprehension
Verbatim repetition
_ is impaired production of speech (fluency) and repetition with intact auditory comprehension
Expressive Aphasia (Broca’s aphasia)

Typically involves Brocas area and the anterior insula. These patients are aware of their condition and frustrated with it.
_ is impaired auditory comprehension, naming, and repetition
Receptive Aphasia (Wernicke’s aphasia)

Patient is unable to understand what is said to them, unable to read and unable to write comprehensible language, involves damage to the left posterior superior temporal cortex
Other deficits that may accompany Wernicke’s aphasia arise from lesions of _ and _ deeper in the white matter.
This results in _
of Meyer’s loop and optic radiations deeper in the white matter.

contralateral homonymous hemianopia (or quadrantanopia).
Conduction aphasia results in impaired naming and repetition with intact comprehension. It is due to damage of the _
Arcuate fasciculus
Damage anterior to Broca’s area or posterior to Wernicke’s area results in transcortical aphasia, which lacks _
impaired repetition
_ Resembles Broca’s aphasia but the ability to repeat verbatim is preserved
Transcortical Motor Aphasia
_ Resembles Wernicke’s aphasia, except verbatim repetition is relatively spared
Transcortical Sensory Aphasia

this results from damage to temporal occipital parietal junction - the angular gyrus
Alexia with agraphia is associated with lesion of the _. In this case, aphasia may be absent or mild.
dominant angular gyrus
Alexia without agraphia is associated with lesions of _ and _
left visual cortex and splenium of corpus callosum.
Magnocellular stream processing involves pathways both from the _ and through the _
lateral geniculate and through the pulvinar.
Patients with lesions of the _ pathways may loose all conscious vision, yet can demonstrate the perception of movements or changes in illumination.
geniculostriate pathways
The medial temporal cortex functions to include _, _ and _
navigation, directing eye movements, and MOTION perception/appreciation
The parvocellular pathways appear to be involved with _
recognition of faces
Bilateral lesions involving the region of the parieto-occipital junction produce _. What are the symptoms?
Balint syndrome.

This produces a triad consisting of optic apraxia (poor control of eye movements), optic ataxia (poor visually guided movements), and simultagnosia (inability to percieve visual field as a whole)
While language is localized in the dominant hemisphere, lesions to the parietal areas in the nondominant hemisphere result in the disruption of _
spatial relationships and selective attention.
The dorsolateral prefrontal region is involved with _
working memory, intellectual capacities, creative and flexible thinking
The ventromedial prefrontal region is involved with _
judgement, planning, decision making, social conduct
Superior Mesial prefrontal region is involved with _
emotional behavior and basic drive associated with motivation and arousal
In general, the left hemisphere is associated with more _emotional affect, while the right hemisphere is associated with _ ones.
positive

negative
In split brain patients, if a word is placed in the _ visual field, he will be able to read it, but not if it's placed in the _.
If an object is placed in the left visual field, a patient may show a _ response
right, left

an emotion response or smile to a humorous object