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54 Cards in this Set

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Proprioception from extraoculular muscles is necessary for __, and is carried through what nerve?
Stereoscoptic vision (3D). Cranial Nerve V
What are the three intrinsic eye muscles and their innervation?
Ciliary (PANS via CN III), Sphincter Pupillae (CN III), Dilator Pupillae (SANS from superior cervical ganglion)
What muscles are involved with opening and closing the eyelids?
Opening: Levator Palebrae (CN III), Tarsal/Muller Muscles (SANS). Closing: Orbicularis Oculi (CN VII)
The oculomotor nuclear group is located _. With the exception of _, motor neurons project to the (ipsilateral/contralateral) extraocular muscles.
In the rostal midbrain beneath the cerebral aqueduct. Except for superior rectus, motor neurons are ipsilateral.
"Lesions of the motor sections of CN III produce _deviation of the eye, _, and _.
"
lateral deviation. diplopia and ptosis.
What nucleus is responsible for lens accomodation and pupillary constriction.
Edinger-Westphal nucleus. This nucleus contains cholinergic preganglionic PANS fibers. Lesions produce mydriasis (pupil dilation)
The trochlear nucleus of CN IV is located _. It's axons innervate the (ipsilateral/contralateral) superior oblique.
in the caudal midbrain near the cerebral aqueduct. Contralateral
Lesions of the Trochlear Nucleus would produce what symptoms?
Minor diplopia with appropriate orientation of the eye
Abducens nucleus is located in the _, near the _. It's axons exit where?
In the pons near the fourth ventricle. Axons exit in the inferior pontine sulcus
What are saccades?
rapid eye movements that direct the eyes to each new target. These are conjugate movements
What are smooth pursuits?
Slower movements that allow the eyes to follow moving targets. These are conjugate movements
What are vergence movements?
Movements that adjust for target distance by adjusting the angle between the eyes. These are disconjugate movements, where the eyes move in different directions
Explain the pathway involving horizontal conjugate gaze
Initiated by cortical and PPRF, activates abducens nucleus and surrounding interneurons. Interneurons enter MLF and ascend to contralateral oculomotor nucleus which will then activated medial rectus on opposite side. Inhibition of other lateral rectus takes place through the same interneurons
Lesions of the medial longitudinal fasciculus can produce _.
Internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Upon lateral gaze, the lateral rectus will abduct but the medial rectus will not adduct. This is typically the result of MS
In a Right CN VI palsy, both eyes can look _, but only the left eye can look _.
left; right. When trying to look right, the right eye stays forward while the left moves medial.
What is the clinical manifestation of a lesion in the right abducens nucleus?
Right lateral gaze palsy. This is where both eyes will be able to look left, but neither will be able to look right.
What is the clinical manifestation of a lesion in the right PPRF?
Right lateral gaze palsy. This is where both eyes will be able to look left, but neither will be able to look right.
What is the clincal manifestation of a lesion of the Left MLF?
Patient will be able to look left, but when he tries to look right, the left eye will stay straight and the right eye will look right but have nystagmus.
Vertical conjugate gaze mechanisms are mediated by nuclei located near the __. The primary nucleus is the _.
midbrain-diencephalon junction. Rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus.
Disruption of the posterior commissure can produce _ deficits
vertical gaze
The frontal eye fields influence eye movements through direct connections to the _ centers and indirectly through the _. With lesions, eyes will deviate (toward/away from) the lesioned side
vertical and horizontal gaze
superior collicus.
Toward the
The superficial layer of the superior colliculus receives sensory visual information directly from _ and _ type retinal ganglion cells
Y and W
The coordination of smooth pursuit movements is modulated through the cerebellum through cortical connections through the _ nuclei and the _.
pontine nuclei; and the vestibulocerebellum (flocculus and paraflocculus)
Vergence movements involve what?
"The near triad" aka near response. It includes the convergence of the eyes, constriction of pupils, and accomodation of lens to focus on the object.
When comparing optokinetic compensatory movements and those modulated through the vestibulo-ocular reflex, what is the big difference? Which one is faster?
Optokinetic movements use the visual image for the major correction rather than vestibular information. Optokinestic is faster (and more sensitive to movement)
The sensory blink reflex uses CN _ and _.
V and VII.
Basal Ganglia modulate cortical signals that are responsible for what?
General motor control, eye movements, cognitice functions, emotional functions
The basal nuclei can be broken into two major complexes, what are they?
Striatal complex and pallidal complex
The caudate and putamen are part of the _ and are fused rostroventrally but separated by fibers of the _
dorsal striatal complex; internal capsule
The putamen is separated from the claustrum by the _
external capsule
The central striatal complex includes the what? (4)
nucleus accumbens, ventral striatum, olfactory tubercle, islands of calleja
The subthalamic nucleus is located _ to the thalamus and above the _.
ventral ; substantia nigra
Branches from the _ supply the basal nuclei
internal carotid
All inputs to the basal nuclei arrive via the _
striatum
All outputs from the basal nuclei leave via the _ and _. The main target from here is the _
medial segment of the globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata; thalamus
The direct pathway through the basal ganglia (increases/decreases) cortex activity. The indirect pathway (increases/decreases) cortex activity.
Direct - increase (Go pathway); indirect - decrease (No go)
DA excites in the direct pathway through _ receptors, and inhibits in the indirect pathway through _ receptors
D1 ; D2
Basal ganglia are thought to be involved in _.
Planning and execution of movement, procedural (habit) learning and memory
Parkinson's disease is a _ disorder. The _ pathway becomes underactive, and the _ pathway becomes overactive.
hypokinetic disorder ; direct ; indirect
How can you treat parkinsons?
L DOPA, Ach antagonists
Huntington Disease is a _ disorder, involving the loss of _ interneurons, most likely due to _.
hyperkinetic ; Acetylcholine interneurons; glutamate excitotoxicity (abnormal htt protein)
Hemiballismus results from a lesion in the _ nucleus, and causes _ movements.
subthalamic nucleus, involuntary flinging (in the contralateral extremity)
(T/F) The basal nuclei directly initiate movement.
False. They effect the OUTFLOW of the motor command signals
The medullary raphe nuclei (e.g. the nucleus raphe magnus) send descending (caudal) projections to the _ and _ nuclei. Most (not all) of their functions regulate _ information
brainstem and spinal cord ; sensory information
The nucleus raphe magnus projects to the _ and makes connections with _ containing neurons. Stimulation of these pathways can produce _ with little effect on tactile stimuli
spinal cord dorsal horn ; opiate ; analgesia
The caudally projecting raphe nuclei also have connections with the _. Stimulation of this area can produce_.
periaqueductal grey ; long lasting inhibition of pain ; *Opiate antagonists can block the stimualtion induced analgesia
The nucleus raphe magnus projects via the_ to brainstem preganglionic autonomic neurons, and can influence autonomic activity
DLF
The major motor related nuclei in the central nuclear group are the origin of _ and _ tracts
pontine and medullary reticulospinal tracts
The _ of the reticular formation contains nuclei that regulate respiration, cardiac cycle and blood pressure.
medullary parvocellular area
The dorsal respiratory group is the lateral region of the _. This is also known as the _ area
solitary nucleus ; inspiratory
"The dorsal respiratory group receives input from where? It projects to the _
"
the superficial medullary group, and the carotid (CNIX) and aortic bodies(CNX) along with stretch receptors ; contralateral phrenic nucleus.
The ventral respiratory group projects from_ to _. It is (excitatory/inhibitory) to phrenic and throacolumbar motor neurons associated with respiration.
C1 to the caudal pons ; excitatory
The Kolliker - Fuse nuclei is another term for what area?
Pneumotaxic Center (regulates respiration)
"The locus coeruleus (group _) is the major rostrally projecting nucleus and supplies much of the broad _ projections to the forebrain. It plays an important role in _
"
A6; catecholamine ; sleep mechanisms.