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12 Cards in this Set

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Who was Charles Sherrington? What did he do? When did he win the Nobel prize? What is Sherrington's law?
Charles Sherrington was a late-19th century phsyiology who coined the terms synapse and neuron. He won the Nobel prize in 1932. Sherrington's law states that the flexing of one muscle causes extension in the antagonistic muscle.
Where do the neurotransmitters get packaged before entering the axon?
The neurotransmitters first get packaged in the Golgi.
What 2 functions does calcium perform in the presynaptic terminal? What molecules mediate these 2 functions?
Calcium shuttles synaptic vesicles to the active site via CaMkII. Calcium causes the fusion of synaptic vesicles in the active zone by associating with SNARES.
What is the extent of the association between the synaptic vesicles and the membrane? What molecule is associated with this process? What are the 3 forms of endocytosis?
The synaptic vesicle never FULLY fuses with the plasma membrane during exocytosis. This process is accomplished by clathrin-coated vesicles. There is (1) classical endocytosis, in which the vesicle fuses almost fully with the membrane, and then endocycyoses only the volume of the original vesicle; (2) kiss and run endocytosis is like classical endocytosis but involves less membrane fusion, and is therefore the fastest method; (3) bulk endocytosis is like classical endocytosis, but involves absorbing a lot of the membrane on its way out.
How are endosomes formed?
Endosomes are formed by bulk endocytosis.
Describe the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles. What must happen to clathrin before the synaptic vesicle is returned to the endosome?
On the intracellular side of the synaptic vesicle, there are clathrin recptors. Clathrin triskelions and adaptor proteins bind to the receptors, forming a coating that facilitates endocytosis after vesicular fusion. Before returning to the endosome, the clathrin coating must be removed by enzymes such as synaptogamin.
How are neurotransmitters added to the synaptic vesicle?
Neurotransmitters are added to the synaptic vesicle by being absorbed from the outside.
What neurotransmitters does VMAT transport? Antagonist?
VMAT transports the catecholamines and serotonin. Reserpine is the antagonist. Reserpine is used to reduce synaptic dopamine, and is thus the opposite of L-DOPA.
Besides VMAT, what 2 serotonin transporters are implicated in serotonin transport?
Vesicular transporter and SERT. MDMA and fenfluramine block these, resulting in too much serotonin the synapse.
What transporter moves glutamate into vesicles?
VGLUT1. It does so with a proton-glutamate antiport mechanism.
What is GABA transporter? How does it work?
VIAAT. It is a bidirectional (dpending on GABA concentrations across membrane that involves the simultaneous symport of 2 Na and 1 Cl-.
What controls vesicular release? What is the scaffolding mechanism?
Ca2+ release controls vesicle release. The movement of vesicles is mediated by actin filaments.