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14 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Neurons
fundamental unit of the nervous system; all functions of the brain results from actions of individual neurons and interconections between them;
Axons
relays electrical impulses away from the cell body; at end of axon is terminal button which contain stored neurotransmitters to be released into synaptic cleft;
Dendrites
transmits impulses or info toward the cell body;
Synapses
junction between two (2) neurons (small space between is the synaptic cleft)
Neurotransmitter
chemical substance that functions as a messenger; it is manufactured / stored in synaptic vessels.
- it is released from axon terminal of pre-synaptic neuron upon electrical impulse
- diffuses acreoss synapse to post synaptic neuron, attaching to specialized receptors
- the interaction b/t neurotransmitter and post-synaptic neuron determines if another impulse is generated
- the neurotransmitter is theneither destroyedby enzymes or returned to axon (re-uptake0
- if returned to axon , it may be reused or destroyed by enzymes there
Cerebral Hemisphere
two (2) divisions of the brain; have interconnected pathways that link areas; corpus callosum = deep groove of nerve cells between two (2) hemispheres
Frontal Lobe Controls
organization of thought, body movements, memories, emotions and moral behavior
Parietal Lobe Controls
interprets sensations of taste and touch and assists in spatial orientation
Temporal Lobe Controls
center for the senses of smell and hearing and for memory and emotional expression
Occipital Lobe Controls
assist in coordinating language generation and visual interpretation, such as depth preception
Medulla
regulates VS; also regulates cough, swallowing, sneezing and vomiting reflexes
Autonomic Nervous System
- communication link for brain to exert control over internal organs (cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands;
- also translates mental distrurbances such as anxiety into altered internal function
-functions of ANS are coordinated in hypothalmus (above midbrain); keeps internal body functtions in balance
Sympathetic NS
- dominant in stress situations such as fear or anger (fight/flight)
- governs processes involved in expending energy
- increased HR, dilate bronchi, dilate coronary arteries
- epinephrine and norepinephrine are sympathetic transmitter agents
Parasympathetic NS
- dominant in relaxed individuals
- concerned with consereving / restorative process
- decreased HR, contracted pupils, constricted coronary arteries, constricted bronchi