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25 Cards in this Set

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H+A+ lesion
amygdala + hippocampal formation (EC, DG, CA, subiculum) + surrounding cortical tissue, parahippocampal and perirhinal cortices, similar to HM
H+ lesion
Hippocampal formation (EC, DG, CA subfields, subiculum) + parahippocampus
A lesion
stereotactic lesion of amygdala only
H++ lesion
hippocampal formation (EC, DG, CA subfields, subiculum) + parahippocampus cortex + perirhinal cortex
Hisc= H+ lesion
lesion of CA1 only produced by bilateral occlusion of carotid artery for 15 min, similar to R.B , CA1 has most NMDA receptors.
PRPH = H+A+
lesion of parahippocampus cortex + perirhinal cortex
NMTS task
The monkey is required to retain some characteristics visual attributes of an object following a brief exposure to that object, the information about the visual attributes of the object in a trial is irrelevant for the next trial, the familiar object is NOT rewarded, the principle of selecting novelty is rewarded, no information is available in memory on association of reward with the correct choice object because object is novel
Results of NMTS task
amygdala does not participate in NMTS, lesion of PRPH also produces severe deficits in the performance
Stimulus
any physical event or combination of events that causes physiological or psychological activity.
Non associative learning
organism habituates or sensitized to a stimulus, most simple form of learning
Associative learning
organism learns relations among events in the world
Habituation
gradual dimunition of response to a stimulus, following repeated presentation of the same or very similar stimulus
Classical conditioning
type of associative learning in which there is no contingency between response and reinforcer
Pavlovs experiment
Pavlov trained dogs to associate a tone with food reward. CS - tone, UR saliva production, US- food, CR - saliva production
Simulataneous conditioning
CS onset and US onset coincide in time
Delay conditioning
CS presented first, US onset precedes CS offset or coincides with it
Trace conditioning
CS starts and ends before US, i.e there is time interval between two, less efficient then delay conditioning
Backward conditioning
US onset precedes CS onset, US terminates before CS terminates, usually not successful
2 requirements for succes of Classical Conditioning
1. contingency (probablity) and contiguity (together CS and US)
COntingency
relationship between two events measured in terms of conditional probabilities - probability of Event 2 given that Event 1 has occured and probability of Event 2 given that Event 1 has not occured
2 forms of dishabituation
spontaneous and by sensitizing stimulus
experimental approaces to study memory
lesions, electrical and chemical stimulation, electrophysiological recordings, molecular biology
lesions methods
surgical ablation, coagulation by heat, cryocoagulation, irreversible for first two
electrical and chemical stimulation
application of electrical square waveforms, flash photolysis of caged compounds
electrophysiological recordings
extracellular, intracellular (sharp and whole cell), attached and excised patch (single channel activity) and optical recordings of electrical activity and calcium activity