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81 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what are the anatomical divisions of the nervous system?
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
What are the structures in the CNS?
Cerebrum
Diencephalon
Brainstem (midbrain, pons, medulla) and Cerebellum
Spinal Cord
What are the structures of the PNS?
Autonomic Nervous System
Cranial Nerves and ganglia
Spinal nerves and dorsal root ganglia
Enteric Nervous System
What are the results of the growth and invagination of of the neural groove?
1. Neural groove closes to form neural groove
2. Neural tube gives rise to all structures in the CNS
What does the neural crest arise from?
Neural crest arises from neuroectoderm as neural tube closes
What are the neurons cells of PNS?
postganglionic sympathetic & parasympathetic neurons, sensory ganglion neurons, enteric neurons
What are the glia cells of PNS?
Schwann cells, satellite cells of ganglia
What are the inner meninges?
arachnoid and pia mater (dura comes from mesoderm)
What does the spinal cord develop from?
Spinal cord develops from the caudal end of the neural tube
What forms from the rostral portions of the neural tube?
3 primary vesicles:
1. Prosencephalon
2. Mesencephalon
3. Rhombencephalon
What does the ventricular system develop from?
The Ventricular system develops from the neural tube lumen
Where is the cervical flexure located at?
Cervical flexure is at the junction of the rhombencephalon and spinal cord
Where is the cephalic flexure located at?
The CEPHALIC flexure is located at the junction of the mesencephalon and rhombencephalon
True or False.
The Pontine flexure forms later in development subdividing the rhombencephalon
True
What are the 5 secondary vesicles that the Prosencephalon and Rhombencephalon subdivide into?
There are 5:
1. telencephalon
2. diencephalon
3. mesencephalon
4. metencephalon
5. myelencephalon
As the metencephalon grows dorsally what does it form?
Growth on dorsal aspect of the metencephalon results in formation of cerebellum
What flexure causes a different orientation in the longitudinal axis of the forebrain relative to the brain stem and the spinal cord?
Cephalic flexure
What does the Prosencephalon divide into?
1. Telencephalon: Cerebral hemisphere
2. Diencephalon: Thalamus & hypothalamus
What does the Mesencephalon divide into?
The Mesencephalon does not dived it is the Midbrain
What does the Rhombencephalon divide to form?
1. Metencephalon: Pons
2. Myelencephalon: Medulla
What comprises the brainstem?
Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla
What are the primary embryonic divisions of the central nervous system?
Forebrain (prosencephalon)
Midbrain (mesencephalon)
Hindbrain (rhombencephalon)
Caudal Neural Tube
What are the secondary divisions of the Central nervous system?
1a. Telencephalon
1b. Diencephalon
2. Mesencephalon
3a. Metencephalon
3b. Myelencephalon
Caudal Neural Tube
What are the CNS Divisions of the Central Nervous System?
Cerebrum
Diencephalon
Midbrain
Pons
Cerebellum
Medulla
Spinal Cord
What cavities belong with what division of the CNS?
lateral ventricles: Cerebrum
Third ventricle: Diencephalon
Cerebral aqueduct: Midbrain
Fourth ventricle: Pons
Fourth ventricle: Medulla
Central Canal: Spinal cord
Ipsilateral
on the same side
Contralateral
pertaining to, situated on, or affecting the opposite side
Afferent
afferents arrives
Efferents
efferents exit
What are the three planes that the brain is imaged in?
Horizontal, Coronal, Sagittal
What are the processes of the neuron that RECEIVE signals?
Dendrites
What are the processes of the neuron that SEND signals?
Axons
What is the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the CNS?
Glutamate
What are the major inhibitory neurotransmitters of the CNS?
GABA & glycine
What are some modulatory neurotransmitters of the CNS?
norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, peptides
True or False.
Glia provides support to neurons and myelination of axons/nerves.
True
What are the Glia cells of the nervous system?
1. Astrocytes
2. Oligodendrocytes
3. Schwann cells
What is the job of the Astrocytes?
They have multiple support functions for the nervous system
What is the job of the Oligodendrocytes?
1. produce myelin in CNS
-a lipid membrane that wraps axons and makes the transmission over long distances possible (white matter)
What is the job of Schwann cells?
1. produce myelin in the PNS
2. Ensheath peripheral nerves
What is the precentral gyrus made up of? Where is it located?
The precentral gyrus is made up of the primary motor cortex
The precentral gyrus is located just anterior to the central sulcus
What is the Eponym for the primary motor cortex?
Brodmann's area 4
What is the postcentral gyrus and where is it located?
The postcentral gyrus is just posterior to the central sulcus and it is composed of the primary somatosensory cortex
What is the Eponym for the primary somatosensory cortex?
Brodmann's area 3,2,1
How many anatomical lobes does the brain have? What are they?
4
Frontal lobe
Parietal lobe
Temporal lobe
Occipital lobe
What is the border between the frontal lobe and the parietal lobe?
Central sulcus
Where are the temporal lobes in relation to the lateral fissure?
The temporal lobes are found inferior to the lateral fissures
Where are the frontal and parietal lobes found in relation to the lateral fissure?
The frontal and parietal lobes are found superior to the lateral fissure
Where is the corpus callosum located? What is one of its major functions?
on the medial surface of the brain, it is the major white matter structure connecting the right and left cerebral cortex
Is the corpus callosum composed of axons or cell nuclei?
The corpus callosum is composed of axons
Where is the cingulate gyrus located? What lobe is it considered part of?
The cingulate gyrus is located just above the corpus callosum and is part of the frontal lobe
What are the two major components of the diencephalon?
thalamus and hypothalamus
they are located just inferior to the corpus collosum
Where does the brainstem lie in relation to the thalamus?
The brainstem lies just inferior to the thalamus
What is the brainstem comprised of?
From superior to inferior the brainstem is comprised of the midbrain, pons, and medulla
Where is the cerebellum found in relation to the brainstem?
The cerebellum is found posterior to the brainstem.
What separates the two lateral ventricles of the brain?
The septum pellucidum separates the two lateral ventricles
Where do the lateral ventricles drain into?
The lateral ventricles drain into the third ventricle.
Where does the third ventricle lie?
the third ventricle lies between the thalami and hypothalami of each side of the brain
What does the cerebral aqueduct drain?
The cerebral aqueduct drains the third ventricle into the fourth ventricle
Where is the fourth ventricle found?
The 4th ventricle is found between the pons/medulla and the cerebellum
What is the large artery found on the ventral surface of the pons?
Basilar artery
What fuses to form the basilar artery?
The paired vertebral arteries enter the cranial vault and fuse to form the basilar artery
Before fusing what does the vertebral arteries give rise to?
Posterior inferior cerebellar arteries (PICA): laterally
Anterior spinal artery (medially)
What does the posterior inferior cerebellar arteries supply?
PICA supplies the lateral medulla and large portions of the cerebellum
What does the anterior spinal artery supply?
The anterior spinal artery supplies the medial medulla and anterior spinal cord (ventral)
What does the basilar artery supply?
the basilar artery supplies the pons and portions of the cerebellum
Where do the anterior inferior cerebellar arteries arise from?
The AICA arise from the inferior poriton of the basilar artery
What does the superior portion of the basilar artery give rise to?
Superior cerebellar arteries (SCA)
True or False.
The basilar artery bifurcates to give rise to the posterior cerebral arteries (PCA)
True
What does the superior cerebellar arteries supply?
SCA supplies superior regions of the cerebellum
What do the proximal branches of the Posterior cerebral arteries supply?
The proximal branches of the PCA supply the midbrain
What vessels comprise the posterior circulation of the brain?
Basilar artery
Posterior inferior cerebellar artery: PICA
Anterior spinal artery
Anterior inferior cerebellar artery: AICA
Superior cerebellar arteries: SCA
Posterior cerebral arteries: PCA
What comprises the anterior circulation of the brain?
Anterior cerebral arteries and Middle cerebral artery
What gives rise the the anterior cerebral arteries and the middle cerebral artery?
the internal carotid arteries enter the cranium and bifurcate to form the ACA and the MCA.
Where is the ACA located and identifiable at?
in the longitudinal fissure
Where is the MCA emerging from?
The MCA emerges from the lateral fissure
What do the MCA and ACA supply?
They supply different portions of the primary motor cortex (precentral gyrus) and the primary somatosensory cortex (postcentral gyrus)
True or False.
Both an infarct of the MCA and the ACA will cause paralysis and sensory loss
True
Due to loss of blood supply to primary motor cortex and to primary somatosensory cortex but in different parts of the body
What are the arteries that supply the cerebellum named as?
superior and inferior
What are the arteries that supply the cerebrum named?
anterior, middle, and posterior
What are the anterior and posterior circulations of the brain joined by?
the anterior and posterior circulations are typically joined by small communicating arteries to form the Circle of Willis