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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the neuron support cells?
glial cells, glia
A typical neuron consists of a _______, ________, and _______.
cell body, dendrites, axons
The cell body of the neuron contains the _______.
The ________ are short processes that receive most inputs to the cell.
______ are long processes that carry most outputs.
Most mammalian neurons are multipolar, which means that they have ______ dendrite(s) and _______ axon(s).
several, several
Axon ______ are axons that branch off the main axon to reach different targets.
Bipolar neurons have _____ axon(s) and ______ dendrite(s) arising from the cell body.
one, one
Bipolar neurons are often ____sensory or motor?)____ neurons?
True or False: unipolar neurons occur mainly in vertibrates?
False. Unipolar neuroons occur mainly in invertebrates
What type of neuron has both axons and dendrites arising from a single process coming from the cell body?
Unipolar neurons
A ______ is the gap or space between two neuron structures in which communication occurs.
neurotransmitter receptors; synaptic vesicles; neurotransmitter; presynaptic terminals; post-synaptic

Use these 5 terms to fill in the following blanks: "Chemical _________ molecules, stored mainly in ________, are released from _________. They then bind to __________ on the ________ neuron, giving rise to either excitation or inhibition of the post-synaptic neuron."
neurotransmitter; synaptic vesicles; presynaptic terminals; neurotransmitter receptors; post-synaptic
The _______ is transisent voltage change that occurs when excitatory synaptaic inputs combine with endogenous transmembrane currents to sufficiently excite a neuron, lasts about ____ millisecond(s) and can travel rapidly throughout the length of the neuron at rates of up to 60 meters per second.
action potential, one
What is the insulating layer of an axon formed by specialized glial cells and speeds the rate of action potential conduction?
myelin sheath
Myelin-forming glial cells in the CNS/PNS? are called oligodendrocytes, while in the CNS/PNS? they are called Schwann cells.
_____________ are short, exposed segments of axon where voltage-gated ion channels are concentrated.
Nodes of Ranvier
Conduction from node to node occurs rapidly by a process known as what?
saltatory conduction
What are 2 general functions of chemical neurotransmitters?
mediate rapid communication between neurons through ESPSs and ISPSs, and neuromodulation which generally occurs over a slower time scale and involves signaling cascades
The _______ neuron summates ESPSs and IPSPs arising from many _________ neuron inputs
post-synaptic, pre-synaptic
What do ESPS and ISPS refer to?
excitatory post-synaptic potential, inhibitory post-synaptic potential
Glutamate is the most common ______ CNS transmitter. (inhibitory or excitatory?)
GABA is the most common ______ CNS transmitter. (inhibitory or excitatory?)
What is the main transmitter at the neuromuscular junction?
Both aceteylcholine and norepinephrine are important in the _______ nervous system
What is the only low-molecular-weight amine transmitter substance that is not an amino acid or derived directly from one?
What is the only transmitter to be synthesized within vesicles?
Cell bodies of seratonergic neurons are found in and around the _________ of the brain stem, which are involved in regulating _________.
raphe nuclei; attention and complex cognitive functions
What neurotransmitter is used by neurons with cell bodies in the locus ceruleus?
Histamine is a transmitter in both invertebrates and vertebrates. It is concentrated in the ________, one of the centers for regulating secretion of hormones.
Which neurotransmitter is used most frequently throughout the nervous system?
True or False: neuroactive peptides are removed more quickly than small molecule transmitters from the synaptic cleft.
False. The slow removal of neuropeptides contributes to the long duration of their effects.