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52 Cards in this Set

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Motor Control is the study of what?
Motor Control is the study of the nature and cause of movement.
Definition listed on lecture 1 outline.
Motor Control is dependent on what three things? Expand and contrast.
1. Perception (Senses)
Have to think about moving from point A to point B.
2. Cognition (understanding and reasoning)
How do I get from point A to Point B.
3. Motor Capability (action) The muscle have to be able to contract in order to get from A to B.
What are the two anatomical divisions of the nervous system?
CNS & PNS
only the names of the divisions
What makes up the CNS?
the brain and the spinal cord
What makes up the PNS?
Cranial and spinal nerves
What are the physiological divisions of the nervous system?
Somatic and automatic
Just list the names
What is the function of the somatic division?
The somatic division innervates the body wall, skin, and muscles. Mostly voluntary
What is the function of the Autonomic division?
The autonomic divsion-
central and peripheral nerves innervate organs, blood vessels. Mostly involuntary
What are the two parts of the autonomic Nervous system?
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic?
What is the function of the sympathetic nervous system?
The sympathetic arouses the body. If something alarms, enrages, or challenges you (such as a longed-for job interview) the sympathetic system will accelerate your heartbeat , raise your blood pressure, slow digestion, raise blood sugar, and cool you with perspiration, making you alert and ready for action. (Lie-detection machines measure stress responses which sometimes also accompany lies.)
"arousing"
What is the difference between a nerve and a neuron.
A neuron is one specialized cell that conducts impulses through electrical and chemical processes.

A nerve is a lot of neurons grouped together outside the CNS.
What is the difference between a nerve and a tract?
A tract is a group of nerves with the same information/type of information being transmitted.
Do neurons multiply?
no
Do neurons need oxygen?
yes
Name the two types of neurons, tell what kind of impulses they send and which direction they go.
Efferent neurons send a motor impulse to glands or muscles and are descending.

Afferent send a sensory impulse and are ascending.
How many neurons are in a typical motor impulse?
2- One UMN and one LMN
How many neurons are in a typical sensory impulse?
Three.
1st order neuron, 2nd order neuron, and 3rd order neuron.
What is the name of a neuron cell body?
Soma
What is the name for a bundle/collection/group of cell bodies?
ganglia
What color are cell bodies?
grey
Why is white matter white?
Myelin on axons
What are tracts?
bundles of axons belonging to neurons that appear white. They are pathways for information in the CNS (brain and spinal cord) and can be ascending(sensory) or descending (motor).
Where does one neuron connect to another?
at a synapse
What flows across the synapse?
Ions flow across the membranes which is an electrical current.
What are the 3 main parts of a neuron.

Be able to name them and label them on a picture
Dendrites
Axon
Cell Body
In what part of the neuron are the following found?

Myelin
Nodes of Ranvier
Nucleus
Nissl granules
Myelin- axon
Nodes of R.-axon
Nucleus- cell body
Nissl- cell body
What is it called when a neuron supplies enough stimulus to another neuron or muscle to allow sodium ions to move into the cell and reverse polarity?
Action potential
What is it called where a motor neuron comes into close contact with a skeletal muscle cell?
Nueromuscular Junction or
Mylonueral junction
What is the name of the chemical released by neurons to stimulate or inhibit other neurons or effector cells?
Neurotransmitter
What are the two types of action potentials?
Excitatory Presynaptic Potential (PSP)
Inhibitory Presynaptic Potential (PSP)
How is it determined which action potential will be produced?
Whichever one is the strongest
How are action potentials measured?
Temporal Summation- repetition of the same stimulus in the same place. This builds over time.

Spatial Summation- repetitions of the same stimulus at the same time but in different spaces. Adds up for a stronger muscle contraction. (The cell becomes more negative, depolarization occurs and it's more likely to fire.)
When axons of a motor neuron branch to adhere to a sarcolema, what is that called?
(site of contact between the axon and a muscle fiber)
motor endplate
What is the name of the auto immune disease when there is no action potential at the neuromuscular junction
myasthenia gravis
What 2 filaments connect to cause a muscle contraction?
actin and myosin
Can an axon divide and innervate hundreds of muscle fibers?
yes
Do peripheral nerves contain sensory, motor, or both?
both
What is the connective tissue around 1 axon called?
Endoneurium
Connective tissue around fasicles of axons
perineurium
Connective tissue around groups of fasicles
Epineurium
What body chart shows what nerve our skin sensation travels on?
Dermatone
What body chart shows which nerve causes motor movement in a muscle?
myotome
Name the vertebral spinal roots are involved in the "slap, slap, slide"
C1-T2
Where does cervical spine C8 exit?
Below c-8?
Are cranial nerves part of the CNS?
No
Are spinal nerves part of the CNS?
No
Are tracts part of the CNS?
yes
Where do cranial nerves enter and exit?
The brain stem
Do cranial nerves carry motor and sensory information?
Yes between the head and the ANS
What are neurons that send messages from the cortex tot he ventral horn?
UMN
Neurons that send messages from the ventral horn to a muscle
LMN
1. Epineurium- connective tissue around groups of fasicles forming a nerve.
2. Perineurium- surrounding bundles of axons called fasicles
3. Endoneurium- connective tissue around one axon
Name these three structures on the peripheral Nerve and define them
E.P.E.