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68 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Corticospinal Tract
Tract arises from the motor areas of the cerebral cortex and descends to the spinal cord
Spinothalamic Tract
Tract carries sensory information from the spinal cord to the thalamus
Dorsal Column Medial Lemniscal Tract
1. Tactile Discrimination
2. Vibration
3. Form Recognition
4. Joint/muscle Sensation
5. Conscious proprioception
Components of the Basal Ganglia
1. Caudate
2. Putamen
3. Globus Pallidus
4. Substantia Nigra
5. Subthalamus
Components of the Limbic System
1. Hippocampus
2. Amygdala
3. Hypothalamus
4. Fornix
5. Cingulate Gyrus
6. Mammillary Bodies
7. Cingulate Cortex
8. Nucleus Accumbens
1st, 2nd, 3rd Order Neuron in DCML Pathway
1. dorsal root ganglia

2. gracile & cuneate nuclei of caudal medulla -- terminate in ventral posterolateral nucleus of thalamus

3. located in VPL of thalamus -- project via posterior limb of internal capsule to somatosensory cortex
1st, 2nd, 3rd Order Neuron of Spinothalamic Pathway
1. dorsal root ganglia

2. dorsal horn

3. VPL nucleus of thalamus
Why is the spinothalamic pathway also called the anterolateral system?
After synapsing, 2nd order neurons will cross, decussate and ascend in the anterior lateral portion of the spinal cord.
What type of information is carried in the spinothalamic pathway?
1. Light Touch
2. Pain
2. Temperature
What types of problems result from lesions in the spinothalamic pathway?
Contralateral anaesthesia (loss of pain) and temperature.

Anaesthesia will normally begin 1-2 segments below the level of lesion, affecting all caudal body areas.
What type of information is carried in the corticospinal tract?
Somatic and visceral motor activities
In which layer of the cerebral cortex do the first-order cells reside?
Layer IV of the motor cortex
What are the names of the specialized cells that project from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord?
Upper Motor Neurons
Where does the corticospinal pathway cross?
pyramidal decussation (in the medulla)
What are upper motor neurons?
Motor neuron cells (and their axons) in the corticospinal tract that originate in the motor cortex
What are lower motor neurons?
Neurons of corticospinal tract
that leave the brain stem via motor cranial nerves
Where does the corticospinal pathway terminate?
Motor neurons
What is the lateral corticospinal tract?
Corticospinal fibers that cross over at the pyramidal decussation.
What is the medial corticospinal tract?
Corticospinal fibers that do not cross over.
Where does the corticospinal pathway cross over?
pyramidal decussation
Difference between basal ganglia and cerebral cortex in motor control
1. Cerebellum receives input only from the sensorimotor parts of the cortex, whereas the basal ganglia receive input from the entire cerebral cortex.

2. Cerebellum output goes only to the premotor and motor cortex, while the basal ganglia also project to the prefrontal association cortex.

3. Cerebellum has direct ties with the spinal cord and the brain stem. The basal ganglia have little connection to the brainstem, and no direct connections with the spinal cord.
Where does major input into the basal ganglia come to?
caudate & putamen
Where is the major output of the basal ganglia?
globus pallidus
What is the globus pallidus?
The major output of the basal ganglia
What structures are involved in Huntington's Disease?
Degeneration of neuronal cells:

* frontal lobes
* basal ganglia
* caudate nucleus
What structures are involved in Parkinson's Disease?
Loss of pigmented dopaminergic cells in the pars compacta region of the substantia nigra

These neurons project to the striatum and their loss leads to alterations in the activity of the neural circuits within the basal ganglia that regulate movement
Why is the basal ganglia sometimes called the extrapyramidal system?
It designated descending non-pyramidal afferents and their source
Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease
* tremor
* rigidity
* bradykinesia
* imbalance

* slowed reaction time
* dimentia
* short term memory loss
* depression
Symptoms of Huntington's Disease
* Speech problems
* Executive Functions
* Anxiety
* Depression
* Uncontrolled movement of lips
* Compulsivity
Potential Treatment for Parkinson's Disease
* DA agonists
* deep brain stimulation
* neural transplantation
* GDNF infusion into basal ganglia
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
Caused by bilateral ablation of anterior temporal lobe (aka amygdala and hippocampus)
* psychic blindness
* hyperphagia
* docility
* hypersexuality
Korsakoff's Syndrome
Damage to mamillary bodies and mediodorsal nucleus of thalamus
* damaged by alcoholism and B1 deficiency
* memory disturbances
* confabulation
* temporospatial disorientation
Limbic System
Anatomic substrate underlying behavioral and emotional expression

* plays a role in feeling, feeding, fighting, fleeing, and mating

* expressed through hypothalamus via autonomic nervous system
Orbitofrontal Cortex
Part of limbic system
* mediates conscious perception of smell
Hippocampal formation
Part of limbic system
* learning, memory, recognition of novelty
* projects major output via fornix
* receives major input via entorhinal cortex
Part of limbic system & basal ganglia
* produces activities associated with feeding and nutrition
* may cause rage and aggressive behavior
What do lesions to the amygdala cause?
* placidity
* hypersexual behavior
* hyperphagia
* psychic blindnes
Amygdala receives information from:
1. olfactory bulb and cortex
2. cerebral cortex (limbic and sensory association)
3. hypothalamus
Amygdala sends information to:
1. cerebral cortex (limbic and sensory association)
2. Hypothalamus
3. Brainstem and spinal cord
What do lesions to cingulate gyrus result in?
1. akinesia
2. mutism
3. apathy
4. indifference to pain
What do lesions to the amygdala cause?
1. placidity
2. loss of fear
3. rage
4. aggression
1st, 2nd, 3rd order neuron of Visual System
1. retinal ganglion cell (cell body in retina)

2. bipolar neurons (relay info from rods and cones to ganglion cells0

3. ganglion cells (form optic nerve)
What happens if you transection the optic chiasm?
Ipsilateral Blindness
What is the lateral geniculate body?
Thalamic relay nucleus subserving vision
Cranial Nerve I
OLFACTORY (sensory)

* sense of smell
* damage = anosmia (loss of smell)
Cranial Nerve II
OPTIC NERVE (sensory)

* vision, light reflex
* transection = ipsilateral blindness
Cranial Nerve III

* moves eye, constricts pupil, converges
* problem = droopy eye, denervation causes affected eye to look down and out, double vision
Cranial Nerve IV

* superior oblique muscle
* CN IV paralysis = head tilting to compensate for extorsion
Cranial Nerve V

* muscles of mastication
* sensation of face, eye, nasal & oral cavities

* lesion = loss of sensation, loss of corneal reflex, flaccid paralysis of muscles of mastication
Cranial Nerve VI

* abducts the eye

* lesion = double-vision
Cranial Nerve VII

* facial movements, taste, salivation, lacrimation

* lesion = loss of taste, loss of blink reflex, Bell's Palsy, Crocodile tears syndrome (crying during eating)
Cranial Nerve VIII

* balance & hearing
Cranial Nerve IX

* taste, salivation, swalling, feeling in pharynx

* lesion = loss of gag reflex
Cranial Nerve X

* phonation, swallowing, taste
* innervates internal organs

* lesion = ipsilateral paralysis, loss of gag reflex
Cranial Nerve XI

* Trapezius & sternocleidomastoid muscles

* lesion = difficulty turning head to side opposite lesion, shoulder droop, inability to shrug ipsilateral shoulder
Cranial Nerve XII

* tongue movement
Lesion of Optic Nerve
Ipsilateral Blindness
Split Optic Chiasm
Unable to see information from temporal visual field from both eyes (ie far left and far right)
Upper motor neuron lesions
Results from damage to cortical neurons that give rise to corticspinal and corticobulbar tracts

* rostral to pyramidal decussation = results in deficit below the lesion on the contralateral side

* caudal to pyramidal decussation = deficit below the lesion on the ipsilateral side
Lateral corticospinal tract transection
Results in ipsilateral spastic paresis below UMN lesion with Babinski's sign
Ventral corticospinal tract transection
Results in minor contralateral muscle weakness below the lesion
Dorsal Column transection
Results in ipsilateral loss of tactile discrimination, form perception, and position and vibration sensation below the lesion
Lateral spinothalamic tract transection
Results in contralateral loss of pain and temperature sensation, starting one segment below the lesion
Ventral spinothalamic tract transction
results in contralateral loss of crude touch sensation starting three or four segments below the lesion
Lesion of primary somatosensory cortex:
contralateral loss of tactile discrimination
Lesion of primary visual cortex:
visual field deficits
Lesion of primary motor cortex:
contralatearl upper motor neuron lesion
Red Nucleus
located in tegmentum at the level of the oculomotor nucleus

* receives input from cerebral cortex