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67 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
this type of cell is important for physical support & repair, K+ metabolism, and helps to maintain BBB
astrocyte
what are microglia responsible for?
phagocytosis
where are ependymal cells found?
inner lining of ventricles
from where do microglia originate?
mesoderm (like macrophages; M)
how many axons does each oligodendrocyte myelinate?
multiple - up to 30 each
what is the predominant type of glial cell in white matter?
oligodendroglia
how many axons do Schwann cells myelinate?
only one each; also promote axonal regeneration
what fuses to form multinucleated giant cells in CNS of HIV infected patients?
HIV-infected microglia
what peripheral nerve layer serves as a permeability layer?
perineurium - must be rejoined in microsurgery for limb reattachment
what layer surrounds the entire nerve (fascicles and blood vessles)?
epineurium
what peripheral nerve layer invests single nerve fibers?
endoneurium
these are found in dermis of palms, soles, and digits
Meissner's corpuscles
what is involved in light discriminaory touch of glabrous (hairless) skin?
Meissner's corpuscles
these are large, encapsulated nerve endings found in deeper layers of skin at ligamnts, joint capsusles, serous membranes, mesnteries
pacinian corpuscles
these are involved in pressure, coarse touch, vibration, and tension
pacinian corpuscles
these are cup-shaped nerve endings (tactile disks) in dermis of fingertips, hair follicles, and hard palate that are invovled in light, crude touch
Merckel's corpuscles
perilymph is rich in what?
Na+ (peri- think outside the cell)
endolymph is rich in what?
K+ (endo-think inside the cell)
what does the bony labyrinth include?
filled with perilymph - cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals
what does the membranous labyrinth include?
filled with endolymph - cochlear duct (within the cochlea), utricle and saccule (within the vestibule), and semicircular canals
what frequency sound does the base of the cochlea pick up?
narrow and stiff - picks up high-frequency
what frequency sounds does the apex of the cochlea pick up?
wide and flexible - picks up low-frequency
what do the ampullae detect?
angular acceleration
how does hearing loss progress in the elderly?
high frequency - low frequency
what do the utricle and saccule contain and detect?
maculae - detect linear acceleration
what produces endolymph?
stria vascularis
what 3 structures form the blood-brain barrier?
1. tight junctions between nonfenestrated capillary membranes
2. basement membrane
3. astrocyte processes
how do glucose and AA's cross the BBB?
carrier-mediated transport mechanism
which crosses the BBB more readily: nonpolar/lipid-soluble substances or polar/water-soluble substances?
nonpolar/lipid soluble substances
name 2 specialized brain regions with fenestrated capillaries and no BBB that allow molecules in the blood to affect function or neurosecretory products to enter circulation
1. area postrema- vomiting after chemo
2. neurohypophysis - ADH release
what hypothalamic nucleus is responsible for thirst and water balance?
supraoptic nucleus
the neurohypophysis releases hormones that were synthesized where?
hypothalamic nuclei
destruction of what hypothalamic nucleus leads to anorexia and starvation?
lateral nucleus
destruction of what hypothalamic nucleus leads to hyperphagia and obesity?
ventromedial (you grow ventrally and medially)
what part of the hypothalamus regulates the parasympathetic NS?
anterior
what part of the hypothalamus regulates the sympathetic nervous system?
posterior
what part of the hypothalamus regulates circadian rhythms?
suprachiasmatic nucleus
what part of the hypothalamus regulates heat conservation and production when cold?
posterior hypothalamus
what part of the hypothalamus coordinates cooling when hot?
anterior (A/C)
what part of the hypothalamus controls sexual urges and emotions? (destruction of this nucleus leads to rage)
septal nucleus (S-sexual/septal)
the posterior pituitary recieves axonal projections from where?
supraoptic (ADH) and periventricular (oxytocin) nuclei
which thalamic nucleus is responsible for relaying visual information?
lateral geniculate nucleus - (Lateral for Light)
which thalamic nucleus is responsible for relaying auditory information?
medial geniculate nucleus (M-music)
which thalamic nucleus is responsible for relaying body sensation?
VPL
which thalamic nucleus is responsible for relaying facial sensation?
VPM
which thalamic nucleus is responsible for relaying motor information?
VA/VL nuclei
what is the limbic system responsible for?
feeding, fighting, feeling, flight, and sex (famous 5 Fs)
premotor area is what Broadman's area?
6
principal motor area is what Broadman's area?
4
principal sensory area is what Broadman's areas?
3, 1, 2
principal visual cortex is what Broadman's area?
17
associative auditory cortex/Wernicke's area is what Broadman's area?
22
primary auditory cortex is what Broadman's area?
41, 42
motor speech/Broca's area is what Broadman's area?
44, 45
frontal eye fields are what Broadman's area?
8
what is most notable in a frontal lobe lesion?
lack of social judgment
this supplies the medial surface of the brain, leg-foot area of motor and sensory cortices
anterior cerebral artery
what artery supplies the lateral apsect of the brain, trunk-arm-face area of motor and sensory cortices, and Broca's and Wernicke's areas?
MCA
what artery is the most common circle of Willis aneurysm; lesion may cause visual field defects?
anterior communicating artery
lesion of this artery causes CN III palsy
posterior communicating artery - common area of aneurysm
these are known as the 'arteries of stroke'
lateral striate areries - divisions of MCA
what do the lateral striate arteries supply?
internal capsule, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus
a stroke of what circle leads to general sensory and motor dysfunction and aphasia?
anterior
a stroke of what circle leads to cranial nerve deficits, coma, and cerebellar deficits?
posterior
cerebral veins drain into what?
venous sinuses - internal jugular vein
what is the main location of CSF return via arachnoid granulations?
superior saggital sinus
hemisection above TI presents with what?
Horner's syndrome