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65 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the three layers of the meninges, from closest to the skull to closest to the brain?
dura
arachnoid
pia
What are the 3 types of nerve fibers in a typical spinal nerve?
1 sensory nerve fiber and 2 motor nerve fibers (1 autonomic)
Where are primary sensory neurons derived from and where do their cell bodies live?
derived from neural crest, live in posterior/dorsal root ganglion
What types of neurons do neural crest cells form? (2)
1. sensory
2. postganglionic autonomic
What are the 3 primary vesicles and 5 secondary vesicles in the brain?
forebrain - telencephalon, diencephalon

midbrain - mesencephalon

hindbrain - metencephalon, myelencephalon
What are the 3 adult derivatives of the telencephalon?
olfactory lobes
hippocampus
cerebrum (most of basal ganglia)
What are the 4 adult derivatives of the diencephalon?
retina
epithalamus
thalamus
hypothalamus
What does thalamus mean?
inner chamber
What are the 2 adult derivatives of the metencephalon?
cerebellum and pons
What is the 1 adult derivative of the myelencephalon?
the medulla
Where does CSF fluid exit the ventricles? Where does it go?
from 3 openings only found in the 4th ventricle; goes into the subarachnoid space
What part of the brain does not contain part of a ventricle?
the midbrain does not contain part of a ventricle, just has a small cerebral aqueduct
What is the adult derivative of the mesencephalon?
the midbrain
What is another name for the hindbrain?
the rhombencephalon
What is the sulcus that divides the frontal lobe and parietal lobe?
the central sulcus
What is the fissure that divides the frontal and temporal lobes?
the sylvian fissure
What is the difference between a fissure and a sulcus
a fissure is a really deep sulcus
What are the boundaries of the occipital lobe on the lateral side?
the occipital lobe has no distinct boundaries on the lateral side
What is the sulcus in the midsagittal view of the brain? What does it divide?
the parieto-occipital sulcus, divides the parietal and occipital lobes
What is usually contained only in the left hemisphere?
language centers:
broca's area - speech
wernicke's area - comprehension
Where does CSF fluid exit the ventricles? Where does it go?
from 3 openings only found in the 4th ventricle; goes into the subarachnoid space
What part of the brain does not contain part of a ventricle?
the midbrain does not contain part of a ventricle, just has a small cerebral aqueduct
What is the adult derivative of the mesencephalon?
the midbrain
What is another name for the hindbrain?
the rhombencephalon
What is the sulcus that divides the frontal lobe and parietal lobe?
the central sulcus
What is the fissure that divides the frontal and temporal lobes?
the sylvian fissure
What is the difference between a fissure and a sulcus?
a fissure is a really deep sulcus
What are the boundaries of the occipital lobe on the lateral side?
the occipital lobe has no distinct boundaries on the lateral side
What is the sulcus in the midsagittal view of the brain? What does it divide?
the parieto-occipital sulcus, divides the parietal and occipital lobes
What is usually contained only in the left hemisphere?
language centers:
broca's area - speech
wernicke's area - comprehension
What cortex is in the frontal lobe, the primary motor or primary somatosensory cortex?
primary motor is in the frontal lobe; primary somatosensory is in the parietal lobe
Where is the primary visual cortex?
medial side of the occipital lobe
What are the 2 motor control centers?
the cerebellum
the basal ganglia - gets movements started
What filters and relays data to the cortex?
the thalamus
What 2 control centers are contained in the brainstem?
cardiovascular and respiratory control centers
What is the name of the secretory epithelium that filters CSF out of the blood?
choroid epithelium (choroid plexus)
What drains CSF down a concentration gradient?
arachnoid granulations
Where are the anterior, body, posterior, and inferior portions of the lateral ventricle?
anterior - frontal lobe
body - parietal lobe
posterior - occipital lobe
inferior - temporal lobe
What are the 4 ventricles?
2 lateral, third, and fourth
In which ventricles is the choroid plexus found?
In all 4 ventricles
What is the communication point between the lateral and third ventricles?
Interventricular foramina of Monro
What are the 3 foramina where CSF fluid can get to the subarachnoid space?
2 lateral apertures (of Luschka) and 1 median aperture (of Magendie)
How are the third and fourth ventricles connected?
by the cerebral aqueduct
What are the components of arachnoid granulations?
arachnoid villi
How many mL of CSF is in the ventricles and subarachnoid space?
80-150 mL
How much CSF fluid is produced per day?
450 mL/day, so the total replacement is about 3X daily
What is the CSF pressure?
80-180 cm H2O
How many lymphocytes does CSF fluid contain?
very few
What is the glucose concentration like in CSF?
half that of the blood concentration
What is the protein content like in CSF?
low protein
What does the presence of RBC in the CSF mean?
bad news/pathologic
What is parenchyma?
the functional tissue in question
What is the difference between systemic and brain capillaries?
brain capillaries have no fenestration (windows)
How do oxygen and CO2 cross the blood-brain barrier?
lipid soluble, easily by diffusion
How do glucose, amino acids, and vitamins K & D cross the blood brain barrier?
water soluble, selective transport
How do sodium and potassium ions move across the blood brain barrier?
through ion channels
How do heroin, ethanol, and nicotine move across the blood brain barrier?
lipid soluble, readily diffuse
How can you tell that neoplasms are in the CNS?
they cause leaky capillaries and an increase in the CNS interstitial fluid levels
What are the main sources of the anterior and posterior circulations to the brain?
anterior - ICA
posterior - vertebral artery
What are the 3 pairs of cerebral arteries, where do they come from, and where do they go?
anterior cerebral - from ICA - goes to front of brain
middle cerebral - from ICA - goes up laterally
posterior cerebral - from basilar
How are anterior and posterior brain circulations joined?
by the posterior communicating arteries
Where do the 2 vertebral arteries join? What is the joined artery called? Then what happens?
at the medulla-pons junction into the basilar artery, then it splits into 2 posterior cerebral arteries
What lobes does the anterior cerebral artery supply? middle? posterior?
anterior - frontal and part of parietal
middle - bulk of lateral aspect of each hemisphere
posterior - occipital
How can you tell which lobe you are looking at?
the temporal lobe points in the direction that the lobe is
(i.e. if the temporal lobe points to the left it is the left lobe)
Does the homunculus have a single or a dual blood supply?
a dual blood supply. Trunk and leg are supplied by the anterior cerebral, face and arm by the middle cerebral