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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is emmetropia?
normal vision
What is farsightedness called?
Where does the image converge in hyperopia? Why?
behind the retina, because eyeball is too short
Where does the image converge in myopia? Why?
in front of the retina, because eyeball is too long
What is nearsightedness called?
Cell types in the retina? (from outer to inner)
rods/cones -> (w/modulation by horizontal cells) -> bipolar cells -> (w/modification by amacrine cells) -> ganglion cells -> converge as optic nerve
How is the light signal transduced into an electrical signal?
light -> absorbed by rhodopsin in rods/cones -> conformations shift activates G protein cascade -> Na channels CLOSE -> HYPERPOLARIZATION of photoreceptor cell -> STOPS releasing NT
Which retinal cells fire action potentials?
ganglion cells only
What 4 places do ganglion cells project to?
LGN (majority), suprachiasmatic nucleus of hypothal (circadian rhythms), superior colliculus (saccadic eye mvts), pretectal area (Ed-Westphal/pupillary light reflex)
Symptoms of 3rd nerve palsy?
resting "down and out", droopy eyelid, external strabismus (can't focus), mydriasis (dilated pupil), loss of accomodation
Symptoms of trochlear nerve damage?
vertical diplopia, difficulty walking down stairs, compensates by tucking chin and looking up slightly, and tilting head away from lesion (to compensate for loss of intorsion)
Symptoms of abducens nerve damage?
horizontal diplopia on attempted gaze toward lesioned side
What is the function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex?
keep image stationary on retina during head mvts
What is the function of the optokinetic reflex?
keep image stationary on retina during visual field motion
What types of eye movements are used to capture and keep particular stimuli on fovea?
Saccades, smooth pursuit, fixation