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21 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The thalamus functions as the "gateway to the cortex". Sensory input, other than _____________, relays through the thalamus before reaching the cortex.
olfaction
True or False:

All output to the cortex from the cerebellum and basal ganglia relays through the thalamus.
True

The thalamus also relays limbic input to the cortex.
True or False:

Due to its multiple functions, damage to the thalamus can cause many problems, including: sensory abnormalities, visual field deficits, and behavioral changes. Lesions to the sensory area can cause numbness on the contraleteral body and face.
True
The internal medullary lamina on each thalamus divides the thalamus into three groups:

A. anterior, medial, posterior nuclear groups
B. anterior, medial, lateral nuclear groups
C. anterior, lateral, posterior nuclear groups
D. lateral, medial, posterior nuclear groups
B. anterior, medial, lateral nuclear groups
Which thalamic nuclei are motor nuclei? (hint: 2)

A. lateral dorsal and lateral posterior nuclei
B. ventral anterior and ventral lateral nuclei
C. ventral posterior and ventral intermediate nuclei
D. ventral posteromedial and ventral posterolateral nuclei
A. lateral dorsal and lateral posterior nuclei
Which thalamic nucleus can be subdivided into ventral posteriomedial (VPM) and ventral posterolateral (VPL)?

A. ventral anterior nucleus
B. ventral lateral nucleus
C. ventral posterior nucleus
D. ventral intermediate nucleus
C. ventral posterior nucleus
_______ is a higher order nucleus involved in attention and integrationof different sensory inputs and rerouting them to the cortex.

A. lateral dorsal nucleus
B. lateral posterior nucleus
C. Pulvinar
D. ventral anterior nucleus
E. ventral intermediate nucleus
C. Pulvinar
Which thalamic group is responsible for attention, memory and learning?

A. anterior
B. medial
C. lateral
A. anterior nuclei
Which thalamic group is responsible for sensory integration for abastract thinking and long-term, goal oriented behavior?

A. anterior
B. medial
C. lateral
B. medial, specifically the dorsomedial nucleus (DM or MD)
Which thalamic group is responsible for motor and sensory relay?

A. anterior
B. medial
C. lateral
C. lateral

note: dorsal tier and ventral tier.
Dorsal tier = lateral dorsal (LD); lateral posterior (LP), pulvinar (P) nuclei.
Ventral tier = ventral anterior (VA) and ventral lateral (VL) nuclei involved in motor control with cerebellum and basal ganglia (VL)
True or False:

The thalamus' posterior to ventral tier is LGN (visual relay) and MGN (auditory relay).
True
Name the main SIX thalamus outputs.
The "new" view of the thalamus talks about first order nuclei and higher order nuclei. [ First / Higher ] order nuclei convey info from periphery or lower brain centers to neocortex and
receives “modulatory” input from neocortex (layer VI). It also has complex inhibitory circuitry.
First Order nuclei!

first order nuclei are: LGN, MGN, VPM, VPL nuclei, They get info relayed to them directly from the periphery or other brainstem areas that are connected to the periphery. They route info directly to cortex.
The "new" view of the thalamus talks about first order nuclei and higher order nuclei. [ First / Higher ] order nuclei receive primary excitatory input from the neocortex (layer V) and relay info from one cortical area to another, mediates cognitive function; damage leads to sensory neglect syndromes; nature and origin of inhibitory network is not known….
Higher order nuclei
Visual input from the optic tract relays in this nucleus. Lesions result in hemianopia.
lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)
Auditory input from the lateral lemniscus relays in this nucleus. Unilateral lesions have little effect on hearing, because auditory information from each ear ascends bilaterally.
the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN)
Somatosensory input from both the posterior column/medial lemniscus system for position and vibration and the spinothalamic system for pain and temperature relay in these nuclei. Lesions affecting this part of the thalamus can cause loss of all sensation on one side of the body. Paradoxically, some patients experience abnormally painful sensations (Athalamic pain) on the anesthetic side. After a stroke, a person may experience thalamic pain or “central pain syndrome” due to damage to the spinal tracts that carry pain and temperature sensation from the periphery to the thalamus. Damage to the spinothalamic or trigeminothalamic tract result in severe, spontaneous pain in the parts of the body connected to the damaged tracts. Thalamic pain starts several weeks after the stroke and presents as an intense burning pain on the side of the body affected by the stroke and is often worsened by cutaneous stimulation.
Ventroposterolateral (VPL) and Ventroposteromedial (VPM) nuclei
After a stroke, a person may experience thalamic pain or _________________ due to damage to the spinal tracts that carry pain and temperature sensation from the periphery to the thalamus. Damage to the spinothalamic or trigeminothalamic tract result in severe, spontaneous pain in the parts of the body connected to the damaged tracts. Thalamic pain starts several weeks after the stroke and presents as an intense burning pain on the side of the body affected by the stroke and is often worsened by cutaneous stimulation.
“central pain syndrome”
True or False:

Thalamic strokes are not known for their motor manifestations, but interruption of the cerebellar input to VA and VL may result in ataxia, and interruption of basal ganglia input (to these same thalamic nuclei, VA and VL) may result in akinesia.
True
True or False:

Bilateral lesions affecting the intralaminar thalamic nuclei, which can be considered extensions of the brainstem reticular formation, can cause unresponsiveness, but the eyes remain open. This has been called coma vigil or akinetic mutism. .
True
True or False:

Lesions affecting medial thalamic structures (the confluence of mammillothalamic and amygdalofugal tracts, dorsomedial and possibly anterior nuclei) can cause profound amnesia.
True