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76 Cards in this Set

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Where is the artery of Adamkiewicz/great meduallary artery and what does it supply?
Left side L1, supplies distal anterior 2/3 spinal cord
What are the signs and symptoms of anterior circulation disruption?
Loss of pain and temperature, maybe LMN syndrome
Anterior Cerebral Arteries supply...
medial frontal and parietal lobes, corpus callosum
Middle Cerebral Arteries supply...
lateral frontal and parietal lobes, lenticulostriate artery
Posterior Cerebral Arteries Supply...
occipital lobe, most of brainstem, inferior portions of temporal lobe, posterior thalamus
Lenticulostriate Artery supplies...
posterior limb of internal capsule, thalamus, some portions of basal ganglia
PICA comes off..
Vertebral Artery
AICA comes off...
Basilar Artey
Superior Cerebellar Artery comes off...
Basilar Artery
Anterior Cerebral Artery Stoke
Contralateral motor and sensory deficits in LE and pelvis
Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke
Contralateral motor and sensory deficits of UE and lower half of face; Lesions on RIGHT parietal lobe= Left Hemineglect
Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke
Contralateral visual field disturbances, can involve brainstem=fatal (cv and respitory)
Lacunar Infarcts
Involve small portions of internal capsule, pure sensory or pure motor stroke, caused by high bp
Watershed Infarcts
occur due to LOW bp, some damage, not global; occur between anterior and middle cerebral arteries
Subdural Hematoma
bridging veins, elderly, babies, rapid deceleration
Epidural Hematoma
occurs with skull fracture that crosses line of meningeal artery, high pressure bleed between skull and dura=death
Subarachnoid Bleed
berry aneurysms, circle of willis, bleeding into CSF, happen on exertion
Anterior Border of the Hypothalamus
Anterior commisure, lamina terminalis, optic chiasm
Medial border of the hypothalamus
3rd ventricle
Dorsal border of the hypothalamus
hypothalamic sulcus
Posterior border of the hypothalamus
midbrain tegmentum
Location of Median Eminence CVO
In between ant. and post. lobes, in between infundibulum and mammillary body
CVO'S TO KNOW
Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis)

Median Eminence (Tuber cinereum)
Archiocortex
3 layers- dentate gyrus and Ammon's Horn
Paleocortex
Transition from 3->6 layers, subiculum
Neocortex
6 layers- parahippocampal gyrus
T or F: evidence of prior cortical injury increases the risk of developing epilepsy
TRUE
Outcome of Subthalamic Nuclei lesion
Hemiballism
Functions of Hypothalamus
leader of autonomic nervous system
Homeostasis, emotional repsonse, hormones, behavior
Function of Limbic System
Emotional Expression, learning, memory, regulation of instinctual behaviors
Hippocampal Formation Function
Learning and memory
Amygdala Function
Behavior and Emotions
Function of Cingulate Gyrus
Perception of emotion, awareness of feelings
Function of basal forebrain nuclei
motivation, gratification, pleasure centers
Function of Thalamus
sensory/motor relay station, gateway to cortex
Function of Pineal Gland
Synthesize melatonin, responsible for biological rhythms
Functions of Basal Ganglia
1- motor function

2- cognitive and behavioral functions
Ventral Anterior Nucleus
globus pallidus, premotor cortex--> premotor cortex
Function of Ventral Anterior Nucleus
Motor
Ventral Lateral Nucleus
globus pallidus, motor cortex--> motor cortex
Function of Ventral Lateral Nucleus
Motor
Ventral Posterior Lateral
DCML, Anterolateral, Somatosensory cortex--> somatosensory cortex
Function of Ventral Posterior Lateral Nucleus
Somatic Sensation (body)
Ventral Posterior Medial Nucleus
spinal and sensory nucleus of trigeminal, somatosensory cortex--> somatosensory cortex
Anterior Nucleus of Thalamus
Mammillary body, cingulate gyrus-> cingulate gyrus
Function of Ventral Posterior Medial Nucleus
somatic sensory to FACE
Function of Anterior Nucleus of Thalamus
Limbic
Lateral Geniculate Nuclei
Retinal ganglion cells, visual cortex-> visual cortex
Function of Lateral Geniculate Nuclei
Vision
Medial Geniculate Nuclei
Inferior Colliculi, auditory cortex-> auditory cortex
Function of Medial Geniculate Nuclei
Hearing
Pulvinar Nuclei (association nucleus)
superior colliculus; temporal, occipital, parietal lobes--> temporal, occipital, parietal lobes
Function of Pulvinar Nuclei
Sensory Integration
Reticular Nuclei (non-specific nucleus)
Thalamic nuclei + cerebral cortex--> thalamic nuclei
Function of Reticular Nuclei
Braking mechanism, modulates thalamic activity
Function of Medial Preoptic Nucleus
(hypothalamic nuclei)
Regulates release of sex hormones
Function of Anterior Nucleus of hypothalamus
Regulates the release of heat from body
(if stimulated, increases parasympathetic activity)
Function of Superchiasmatic Nuclei of Hypothalamus
Input from retinal cells, mediates circadian rhythms
Function of Paraventricular and Supraoptic Nuclei of Hypothalamus
Produces ADH and oxytocin, regulates H2O balance
Function of Posterior Nucleus of Hypothalamus
Regulates the conservation of heat
(if stimulated, increases sympathetic activity)
Function of Mammillary Body Nucleus of Hypothalamus
Input from hippocampus, very important in limbic system
Function of
Arcuate Nucleus of Hypothalamus
Hypothalamic hormones released (releasing factors) to pituitary gland
Basolateral Group in Amygdala
Input from cortex and thalamus, large in humans
Corticomedial Group in Amygdala
Input from olfactory bulb, small in humans
Central Nucleus in Amygdala
Input from basolateral and corticomedial, output to brainstem, cortex, thalamus and hypothalamus to regulate visceral, motor, emotional repsonses)
Fornix Pathway Precommissural Fibers
Hippocampus -> basal forebrain
Fornix Pathway Postcommissural Fibers
Hippocampus-> mammillary bodies
Amygdala --> hypothalamus and basal forebrain
Stria Terminalis
Habenula--> hypothalamus and basal forebrain
Stria Medullares Thalamicas
Brainstem and midbrain-->forebrain via hypothalamus
Medial Forebrain Bundle
Mammillary body--> Anteior Nucleus of thalamus
Mammillothalamic Tract (E)
Paraventricular + Supraoptic Tractaxons--> infundibulum and posterior pituitary
Hypothalamohypophyseal Tract (E)
Hypothalamus--> Anterior Pituitary via hypophyseal portal system
Tuberoinfundibulum Tract (E)
Bilateral destruction of the amygdala results in...
Inability to recognize emotion of fear in pictures
Bilateral destruction of temporal lobes, including amygdala, characterized by hyperorality, hypersexuality, visual agnosia, and personality changes towards passivity/docility
Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
If there is a unilateral lesion to frontal eye field, then...
eyes deviate toward the side of the lesion at rest