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49 Cards in this Set

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cranial nerve 1
olfactory visural motor nerve7 impacts glands of the head exempt for the intergumentery glands and parratid gland
nerve 2 Modality -cell bodies- function-receptoprs-projections- function
Modality -special sensory
Cell bodies - lateral geniculit neuclious
receptors- ganglin cells of retina ( receptors)
projection- from retina --> primary visual cortex
function - vision
nerve 3- modality-cell bodies- brain stem -projection- function
modality- somatic motor/ visceral motor
cell bodies -oculomotor nucleus and also the - edinger westphal
brain stem level- midbrain
projection - eye
Function- somatic/ visceral motor
nerve 3 (what is it) function somatic
oculomotor-
Somatic motor
to extraocular eye muscles ( except for the superior oblique and the lateral rectus)
nerve 3 (what is it) function visceral motor
oculomotor-
parasympathetic supply to ciliary and papillary constictor muscles (allows eyes to dialate)
nerve 4 (modality, cell bodies, brainstem lv, projection, function)
trochlear
cell bodies - trochlear nuclei
brainstem- midbrain
projection- eye
function - motor to superior oblique
nerve 5 (modality, cell bodies, brainstem lv)
trigeminal-
modality -2 brachial motor and general sensory
cell bodies-trigeminal
brainstem- pons, medulla, midbrain
nerve 5 projections brachial motor
Profiles motor information to the:
muscles of mastication (chewing)
the tensor tympana (ear)
tensor vili palatini (ear)
milo hyoid (swallowing)
anterior belly of the digasteric (swallowing)
nerve 5 projections general sensory
gathers information from:
face
scalp
to the top of the head
conjunctiva
bulb of the eye
muscles membranes form the para nasal sinisus
nasal and oral cavities including the tongue and the teeth
part of the external aspect of the tm
manginess of the anterior and middle cranial fossae
nerve 6 (modality, cell bodies, brainstem lv, projection, function)
abducens
modality- somatic motor
cell bodies- abducens
brainstem- pons
projections- eye
nerve 7 1st modal brachial,modality, cell bodies, brainstem lv, projection, function
Facial
cell bodies- facial
brain stem -pons
function- motor information to the stapedious
stylohyiod
posterior belly of the digastious muscle
muscles of facial expression ( buxinator, platysma occipitalous muscles)
Nerve 7 2nd modality visceral cell bodies, brainstem lv, projection, function
cell bodies- superior salivary
brainstem lv- pons
Function-help stimulate the :
lacrimal
submandibular
sub lingual glands
mucosal membrane of nose hard and soft palates
nerve 7 3rd modality GS, cell bodies, brainstem lv, projection, function
cell bodies- trigeminal
brainstem lv- medulla, pons, midbrain
function- gets sensory infor from
skin of the concha of the aurcile
small area skin from behind the ear
wall of the acoustic meatus
external tm
nerve 7 SS, modality, cell bodies, brainstem lv, projection, function
modality -special sensory
cell bodies- tractus solitarus
brainstem- medulla
function- gets sensory information
taste form anterior 2/3 of the tongue
hard and soft palette
nerve 8 (modality, cell bodies, brainstem lv, projection, function)
vestibulocochlear
modality- special sensory
cell bodies - vestibular /cochlear
brainstem - medulla, pons / pontomedullary (junction)
function-
audiotor information form the cocheala
balence information from the semi circular canals
nerve 9 (Brachial motor) (modality, cell bodies, brainstem lv, projection, function)
Glossopharyngeal
modality- branchial motor
cell bodies- ambiguus
brainstem- medulla
function- provides motor informaton
sylilo pharyngeus muscle
nerve 9 (visceral motor) (modality, cell bodies, brainstem lv, projection, function)
modality- visceral motor
cell bodies- inferior salivatory
brainstem- pons
function- provides motor information
otic ganglion sends fibers to stimulate perotid gland
nerve 9 (visceral sensory) (modality, cell bodies, brainstem lv, projection, function)
modality- visceral sensory
cell bodies- tractus solitarus
brainstem- medulla,pons,midbrain
function- carries sensation from
coratic body
coratid sinus
nerve 9 (general SEN) (modality, cell bodies, brainstem lv, projection, function)
modality- general sensory
cell bodies- trigeminal
brainstem- medulla,pons, midbrain
function- arries sensory
get info from post 1/3 of the tongue (pressure)
skin of external ear
internal surfus of the tm
nerve 9 (SS) (modality, cell bodies, brainstem lv, projection, function)
modality- Special Sensory
cell bodies- tractus solitarus
brainstem- medulla
Function- taste from the post 1/3 of the tongue
what is the pathway?
Cerebellar projection
(Afferent)
Dorsal spinocerebellar
spinal cord to the medulla to the inferior cerebellar peduncle to the cerebellum
what is the pathway?
Cerebellar projection
(Afferent)
cuneocerebellar
accessory cuneate nucleus to the medulla passing through the inferior cerebellar peduncle to the cerebellum
what is the pathway?
Cerebellar projection
(Afferent)
Rostral spinocerebellar
From the posterior spinal cord to the medulla passing though the inferior cerebellar peduncle to the cerebellum
what is the pathway?
Cerebellar projection
(Afferent)
reticulocerebellar
from the reticular nuclei passing through the medulla passing through the inferior cerebellar peduncle to the cerebellum
what is the pathway?
Cerebellar projection
(Afferent)
vestibulocerebellar
From the vestibular canal passing though the medulla to the inferior cerebellar peduncle to the cerebellum
what is the pathway?
Cerebellar projection
(Afferent)
olivocerebellar
leaves the olivary nucleus and pass out at the medulla goes to the inferior peduncle to be distributed to the cerebellar hemisphere
what is the pathway?
Cerebellar projection
(Afferent)
Pontocerebellar
Starts at the pons goes through the pons to the middle peduncle to the cerebellar hemisphere
what is the pathway?
Cerebellar projection
(Afferent)
ventral spinocerebellar
starts at the ventral portion of the spinal cord, to the isthmus through the middle cerbellar peduncle and finally to the cerebellum
what is the pathway?
Cerebellar projection
(Efferent)
juxtarestiform body
starts inside the inferior cerebellar peduncle goes to the medulla, takes information to the brainstem
It also carries primary sensory fibers from the vestibular ganglia to the cerebellum
what is the pathway?
Cerebellar projection
(Efferent)
Superior Cerebellar peduncle
the cerebellar peduncle leaves as a fiber to 2 parts, Part of the bundle terminates in the contralateral red nucleus; the bulk of the fibers continue Thalamus
All cells have 6 components
1.Bilipid plasma membrane
2.proteins
3. nucleus and nucleolus
4. mitochondria
5. other organelles
6. cytoskeleton
6 differences that nerve cells have
1. processes
a. axons
b. dendrites
2.Nissl substance
3.more mitochondria
4. cell body
5. terminal boutons
6. myelin
what is the primary function of the spinal cord
To collect stimuli from the environment and transmit this information to the cerebral cortex
and then retransmit the “answers” from the cortex all the way back to the periphery. It
also serves as the coordinating center for the reflex arc.
what is grey matter and white matter
A) Gray matter
Located within the spinal cord and arranged in a butterfly shape
· Comprised of neuronal cell bodies and unmyelinated nerve fibers
b) White matter
· Creates the outer portion of the spinal cord
· Composed mainly of myelinated nerve fiber tracts that carry nerve impulses
up and down the cord between the brain and the rest of the body
What is the anatomy of the spinal cord
White cylindrical cord, 18 inches,
what does cns stand for
central nervous system
what does pns stand for
peripheral nervous system
what are the two types of cells
neurons (nerve cells)
satellite cells
What structures make up the central nervous system?
brain, spinal cord
what is the difference between a nerve and a tract?
in the CNS large number of nerves that coarse together are tracts
What is the first phase of sending a nerve impulse
1. Resting neuron positive sodium ions are continuously pumped out from the cell; the inside of the cell membranae is negatively charged.
what is the second phase of sending a nerve impulse
2. Nerve impulse triggered Stimulated by an impulse the cell membrane allows positive sodium ions to rush into the cel. At these local sites, the inside of the membrane becomes positively charged
what is the third phase of sending a nerve impulse
as the impulse moves along the axon new segments become positively changed while those that were previously positive return to a negative state
what is the 4th phase when sending a nerve impulse
the impulse reaces the synaptic knob triggering the release of neurotransmitter molecules from the vesicles. the molecules cross the synaptic cleft to activate a response in the target cell
what are the key words associated with the sodium pump?
Nerve impulse axon terminal vesicle synaptic knob, neurotransmitter molecules
what are nerves resting potential?
-70mv
process of nerve impulses
perturbations of plasma membrane causes local potentials which may be excitatory or inhibitory. if the potentials reache -15mv then a nerve impulse is initiated. the potential is propagated along the axon until it reaches the terminal boutons, here the action potentials cause a release of neurotransmitters from the synaptic vesicles into the synaptic cleft. This in turn excites or inhibits the postsynaptic membra in cause local potentials in the next cell
how many portions is the brain stem divided into and what are they?
3. medulla, pons midbrain
where and what is the diencephalon?
it is rostral to the midbrain
4 divisions thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, subthalamus