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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
CNs of Taste

CNs of Olfaction
(5), 7, 9, 10

what is the starting signal for both systems?

predominant receptor type
chem-rec interaction

-all GPCR in olfaction
-taste has GPCR and others
buds and epithelia turnover
continuously renewing

olfact epithel renew every 1-2 weeks
Taste 'receptors'

Olfactory 'receptors'
modified epithelial cells

actually REAL neurons
Labled Line Theory
transmits dfft sensory modalities

w/i these lines there are populations of neurons that transmit submodalities
a single neuron early on in the brainstem will respond to?

when its in the spec secondary cortex?
a lot of dfft submodalities

it will only respond to 1 submodality
Taste/Olfaction feed into
The Limbic System, especially the Amygdala
Olfaction has connectsions to what?

perception of flavor is modif..
1. parahippocampal gyrus
2. hippocampus
3. amygdala

by its emotional significance, relates back to the amygdala
Taste is really...
multiple components: taste buds, olfact system, free nerve endings
Taste Buds

3 types on ant 2/3rds
1. Fungiform- mushrooms, all over
2. Foliate- in grooves on the side
3. Circumvallate- 'walled' in a V-shape
what are the papillae in the middle of the tongue used for?
touch, detect texture

villiform papillae
each taste bud contains what?
many taste cells

there are 2000-5000taste buds and 50-150 taste cells (?)
chemicals for taste proceed...
1. into the taste pore
2. forced into taste receptor
what nerve innervates the ant 2/3rd of the tongue?
chorda tympani
branch of CN VII

some of CN IX
what does CN X do in the mouth/tongue?
taste in the post 1/3rd
fxns in reflexes-vomiting
is the taste map valid?
dfft parts of the tongue can detect dfft submodalities
Solitary Nucleus...

this is the...
rostral medulla
receives CNs from the mouth
-rec CN 7, 9, 10
*Principle Visceral Sensory Relay
all Taste GPCR are coupled to?

depolarization results in what?
ion channels. both result in depolarization

voltage-dependent Ca chan activation and entry of Ca
-causes NT release and stimulation of aff CN
taste epithelial cells have a lot of what type of channel?
calcium channels to generate huge signals
Submodalities of Taste
salty, sour, sweet, bitter, umami
salty taste works via
cAMP does what
IP3 does what
depolarizatoin of Na chan
block outward K mvmt
Glu ion chan, or metabotrop rec
blocks outward mvt of K
intracellular K release
once CN synapse in the Solitary Nuc, there is interaction w/...
1. Reticular Formation- arousal
2. DMN of X- reflexes
Rostral Pons has
VPM of thalmus
Primary Gustatory Cortex
Parabrachial nuc-non humans
gustatory/olfactory ipsilateral
go to insula and frontal operc
Orbitofrontal Cortex is important in what?
Integration b/w Taste and Smell

projects to amygdala, hypothal, and striatum
how are the responses dfft b/w cells in the solitary nuc and orbitofrontal cortex?
orbitofrontal cortex is more selective and responds to spec submodalities
Labled Line theory is incorrect for taste

Solitary Nucleus shows..
each taste cell can detect dfft submodalities and pick up info from another taste cell

responses across many modalities
CNI and the olfactory bulb are considered..

what are the olfactory rec considered?
Part of the CNS, they do not leave the CNS like other CNs

REAL neurons- Bipolar olfactory rec neurons
does smell have a Thalamic Relay?
there is no relay going IN to the cortex

there is relay OUT of the cortex to other areas
what is the process of olfactory trasduction?
all GPCR--> gen cGMP
activates cGMP gated ion chan
leads to depolarization
if the depolarization and AP are powerful enough where does it go in olfaction?
to the olfactory bulb
convergence of the epithelial cells

what happens in the glomerulus?
1000s of bipolar epithel cells converget onto a Glomerulus

sorting of signals before goign to the olfact bulb
CN I pathway
initial synapse?

possible termination
synapses on Ant Olfact Nucleus
-inhibits contralat bulb
Olfactory tubercle (unknown function)
3 Primary Olfactory Cortices

from cortices, project where?
1. Piriform Cortex
2. Periamygdaloid Cortex
3. Parahippocampal Gyrus

amygdala and hippocampus
orbitofrontal cortex is where
Taste and Smell Converge

Seizures starting in Parahippocampal gyrus or uncus
loss of smell, not taste
-happens in PD

have bad smell/tastes before onset
Rostral Medulla contains
reticular formation
centers for reflex, arousal
DMN of X
Solitary nucleus(visc relay)
Rostral Pons
parabrach nuc (cerebellar peduncle) in non-primates
VPM via
cortical relay via Central tegmental tract
what side are olfact and gustatory reflexes?
Primary Gustatory Cortex consists of?
1. Insula
2. Frontal Operculum
The Orbitofrontal cortex projects to?
1. amygdala
2. hypothalmus
3. Striatum
Each Taste Cell is capable of....?

what does this imply?
1. detecting multiple modalities
2. info from another taste cell

that the labled line theory is wrong
would cells in the rostral medulla at the solitary nucleus respond broader than cells in the orbitofrontal cortex?
yes they would respond to more modalities
what is the relationship of the Thalmus to olfaction?
NO thalamic relay on the way to cortex

does use Thalmus on way OUT of cortex
what is found in the Glomeruli?

what converges here?
a lot of the same submodalities of taste

about 1000bipolar epithel cells
what happens to olfactory signals before they get to the olfact bulb?
sorting in/before glomerulus
Thalamic projections from piriform cortex and olfactory tubercle use what?
Dorsomedial nucleus of the thalmus
projections from the dorsomedial nucleus of thalmus go where?
Orbitofrontal cortex
accessory olfactory bulb can directly synapse where?