Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/25

Click to flip

25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Treatment Strategy for Parkinson's (BALSA)
Bromocriptine (partial dopamine agonist)
Amantidine (causes Dopamine release)
Levodopa (converted to dopamine)
Selegiline (blocks Dopamine breakdown)
Antimuscarinics (benztropine- lowers ACh to relieve rigidity and tremor)
L-Dopa/Carbidopa
1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
1)L-Dopa crosses BBB and can be converted to Dopamine in the brain by dopa decarboxylase

2) Parkinson's

3) Arrhythmias if converted in periphery, which is blocked by administrating the Carbidopa (blocks peripheral decarboxylase)
Also can have dyskinesia after administration and akinesia between doses after long term use
Selegiline
1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
1) Selectively inhibits MAO-B due decrease breakdown of Dopamine

2)Adjuvant to L-Dopa

3)Can worsen side effects of L-Dopa
Sumatriptan
1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
1) 5-HT agonist which causes vasoconstriction (very acute with short half life)

2) Acute migraines, cluster headaches

3) Coronary vasospasm, mild tingling. Can't use in Prinzmetal's angina or CAD
Seizure Treatments
1) Partial Seizures
2)Tonic Clonic Seziures
3)Absence Seizures
4)Status Epilepticus
1) All drugs are useful
2)First line is Phenytoin, Carbamazepine, or Valproic Acid
3)First line is Ethosuximide, Valproic Acid will work
4) Prophylaxis is Phenytoin, Acute trt is Benzodiazepines (Diazepam, Lorazaepam)
Phenytoin
1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
1) Use dependent blockade of Na+ channels, and blocks glutamate release from Excitatory presynaptic terminals

2)Tonic Clonic Seizures, and Class IB antiarrhythmic

3) Diplopia, Ataxia, Nystagmus, SLE-like, induction of p450, gingival hyperplasia, hirsutism, blocks folate absorption (megaloblastic anemia), teratogenic, malignant hyperthermia
Carbamazepine
1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
1) Blocks Na+ channels
2) Tonic Clonic seizures, Trigeminal Neuralgia

3)Diplopia, Ataxia, induces p450, Agranulocytosis, teratogenic, liver toxicity
Gabapentin
1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
1)Causes GABA release
2)Tonic Clonic, and peripheral neuropathy

3) Sedation, ataxia
Lamotrigine
1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
1) Blocks voltage gated Na+ channels
2)Everything but Absence, and Status Epilepticus

3) STEVEN-JOHNSONS RASH
Ethosuximide
1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
1) Blocks T-type Ca+ Channels
2) Absence seizures
3) Lethargy, Uticaria, Steven Johnsons Rash
Valproic Acid
1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
1)Inactivates Na+ channels, increases GABA release
2)Everything but Status Epilepticus, and it works in Myoclonic Seizures

3) Hepatotoxic, GI, Spina Bifida, Tremor, Weight Gain
Barbituates-Phenobarbital, Pentobarbital, Thiopental
1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
4)Trt of overdose
1)increase the duration that the GABA Cl- channel is open --> decrease neuron firing

2) Sedative for anxiety, seizures, insomnia, induction of anesthesia (thiopental)

3) Addictive via dependence, additive CNS depression with EtOH, Respiratory Depression (death), Induction of p450

4) Respiratory Support, BP support
Benzodiazepines- Diazepam, Lorazepam, all end in -epam
1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
4)Trt overdose
1) Increase frequency of the GABA Cl- channel being open and usually have long half lives (Triazolam, Oxazepam, Midazolam are short TOM)

2)Anxiety, Spasticity, Status Epilepticus, Detox from EtOH, Night Terrors, Sleep Walking (Stage 4 sleep)

3) Dependence, additive depressent with EtOH, but less risk of Respiratory Depression

4)Flumazenil (blocks GABA)
Antipsychotics/Neuroleptics - Thioridazine, Haloperidol, Fluphenazine, Chlorpromazine

1)MOA
2)Use
1)Blocks Dopamine D2 receptors (excess Dopamine implicated in Psychosis and schizophrenia)

2) Schizophrenia,Pychosis, Mania, Tourette's
Antipsychotics/Neuroleptics

1)EPS side effects
2)Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
3)Tardive Dyskinesia
1)Blockage of Dopamine in the Basal Ganglia causes the symptoms of
-acute dystonia
-akinesia
-askathisia
-tardive dyskinesia (after 4 mo of therapy
Blockage of Dopamine also removes the inhibition of Prolactin --> gynecomastia
Muscarinic Block (dry mouth), Hypotension, and sedation (histamine block)

2) Causes rigidity, myoglobinuria, autonomic instability, and hyperexia --> trt with Dantrolene

3) stereotypical oral facial mvmts after long term use
Atypical Antipsychotics- Clozipine, Olanzapine, Risperidone
1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
1) Blocks Dopamine and 5-HT in diff't tissues

2) Szhizophrenia (both positive and negative symptoms)
Olanzapine --> OCD, anxiety, depression, Tourette's mania

3) Few EPS and anticholingergic side effects.
Clozapine has Agranulocytosis
Lithium
1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
1) Completely unknown
2)Mood stabalizer, blocks relapse of manic effects

3)LMNOP
Lithium causes
Movement problems (tremor)
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
hypOthyroidism
Pregnancy Problems
SSRI's - Fluoxetine, Sertraline, Paroxetine

1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
1) Blocks re-uptake of Seratonin
Takes 2-3 weeks to have effect

2) Depression, OCD

3) GI distress, sexual dysfxn (no orgasm)
Seratonin Syndrome- happens if on SSRI and MAOi --> hyperthermia, rigid muscles, cardiovascular collapse
Tricyclics- imipramine, amitryptaline, desipramine, nortryptiline, clomipramine, doxepin

1)MOA
2)Use
3)Side Effects
4)Toxicity
1) Block reuptake of NE and Seratonin

2)Major depression, bedwetting (imipramine), OCD (clomipramine)

3)Sedation, Hypotension, Anticholinergic symptoms (amitryptiline)
Desipramine is least sedating

4) Tri-C's --> convulsions, Coma, Cardiotoxic
May also hallucinate from early anticholinergic side effects
Bupoprion
1)Use
2)Toxicity
1)Depression, Smoking cessation

2) Stimulatory (tachy, insomnia), seizures, no sexual side effects
Venlafaxine
1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
1)Block Seratonin, NE, and Dopamine reuptake

2) Generalized anxiety, depression

3) Stimulation, nausea, constipation
Mirtazapine
1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
1)alpha2 blocker --> excess release of NE and Seratonin

2)Depression

3)Sedation, increased appetite, weight gain, increase blood pressure
Maprotiline
1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
1)Blocks NE reuptake
2)Depression
3)sedation
Trazodone
1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
1)Blocks 5-HT reuptake
2)Depression
3)Sedation, priapism, hypotension
MAOi's - Phenelzine, Tranylcypromine

1)MOA
2)Use
3)Toxicity
1) Nonselective blockade of MAO --> increases all amine neurotranmitters (Epi, Dopamine, NE)

2)Atypical Depression (with pyschosis), anxiety, hypochondriasis

3) Hypertensive crisis with Tyramine ingestion (Cheese, wine)
CNS stimulation,
Can't combine with SSRI's or Beta Agonists (Seratonin Syndrome)