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23 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what are the names of the prominent flexures that develop and at how many weeks?
6 weeks
cephalic, pontine, cervical
what are the 3 primary vesicles and why do they form?
cranial to caudal
prosencephalon
mesencephalon
rhombencephalon
develop b/c of massive cell proliferation at rostral end
what does the prosencephalon give rise to?
telencephalon (hemispheres, basal ganglia)
diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus and retina)
where is CN I derived from? what type of myelinating cells would be present?
derived from CNS; oligodendrocytes
what is the ventricle formed by proliferation of the telencephalon?
lateral
where does the 3rd ventricle develop?
in cavity of diencephalon
what forms in the cavity of the mesencephalon?
cerebral aquaduct
what does the rhombencephalon give rise to?
metencephalon-pons, cerebellum
myelencephalon-medulla
where does the 4th ventricle develop?
in the cavity of the rhombencephalon
where is the pontine flexure and what is its significance developmentally?
in caudal brainstem
pushes down during development to flatten the walls of the fourth ventricle;
ventral motor areas-> medial dorsal sensory areas-> laterally (in brainstem)
what is the result of the anterior neuropore failing to fuse?
anencephaly
how does spina bifida develop?
failure of the posterior neuropore to close (6 weeks)
take folic acid!
where does fusion of the neural tube begin?
cervical region then moves cranial and caudal
what is the sulcus limitans?
divides spinal cord into alar/basal (dorsal/ventral)
becomes intermediate zone
what is another name for dorsal/ventral?
dorsal = ALAR

ventral = BASAL
what is an alpha motor neuron and where do they synapse?
lower motor neuron
synapse on mm.
where do cortical neurons originate?
in ventricular zone, then move out
how many cell layers are in the cortex? which is the older, youngest?
6 layer numbered 1-6, 1 being further from the ventricles and 6 being the closest.
6 oldest; 1 youngest (moving out of suburb)
different cells at different layers have different fxns; timing is imp in det cell fxn
how do developing neurons migrate?
along the processes of radial glial cells
when does neuronal migration peak? when is it completed?
peaks 11-15 weeks
completed by week 24
what is one of the reasons for MR in fetal alcohol syndrome?
alcohol interferes with neuronal migration -> abnormal layering of cortex and cerebellum
what is microcephaly the result of?
abnormal neuronal proliferation and/or survival
what is lissencephaly?
"smooth brain"
thick cortex but only 4 layers
genes involved regulate microtubules (cell shape, motility)