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89 Cards in this Set

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Where are the pyramids? What do they contain
part of ventral medulla

contain corticospinal tracts
What is the pyramidal decussation?

It marks the junction of what structures?
crossing site for corticospinal tracts at the caudal end of pedullary pyramid

marks jxn between spinal cord and brainstem
Fasiculus gracilis and cuneatus
What are they?
Where are they located?
tracts conveying wall-localized touch , pressure, vibration and joint position sense from legs (gracilis) and arms (cuneatus)

located in DORSAL FUNICULUS of SPINAL CORD
What are the Dorsal Columns
collective term for the FASCICULUS GRACILIS and CUNEATUS
Nucleus Gracilis
is located where?
what terminates there?
nuclei in the caudal medulla (for the termination of fasciculus gracilis)
Nucleus Cuneatus
is located where?
what terminates there?
nuclei in the caudal medulla (for the termination of the fasciculus cuneatus)
Internal arcuate fibers
nerve fibers leaving the ventral part of the nucleus gracilis and cuneatus
Medial lemniscus
made of what type of fibers?
is a continuation from what structures?
continuation of SENSORY FIBERS from the DORSAL COLUMN NUCLEI continuing rostrally trhough brain stem
Lateral/External Cuneate Nucleus

what type of fibers emanate from it?
what stuctures do these fibers connect?
nucleus just lateral to the nucleus cuneatus

for RELAY of PROPRIOCEPTIVE FIBERS from:
the UPPER LIMB to the CEREBELLUM
CENTRAL CANAL
-where is it located?
-what is inside?
-what other space is it continuous with?
center of spinal cord and lower medulla

filled with CSF

connects with 4th VENTRICLE in the MEDULLA
where the central canal opens up to the 4th ventricle
OBEX
Why kind of fibers are in the Spinal Tract of the Trigeminal
pain and temperature sensory fibers

running caudally through the caudal/lateral brain stem

continuous with the fibers in the Trigeminal nerve
termination of trigeminal pain and temperature sensory fibers in the spinal tract of the trigeminal
SPINAL NUCLEUS OF THE TRIGEMINAL
Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus is a pathway for what?

Where is it located?
aka the MLF

parthway for several ascending and descending tracts

located near midline, just ventral to the ventricle system
HYPOCLOSSAL NUCLEUS
contains what kind of neurons?
nucleus containing motor neurons for tongue muscles
Nucleus Solitarius
-is what type of nucleus?
-for which nerves?
VISCERAL SENSORY NUCLEUS for CNIX and CNX

Also has taste (gustatory) part
nucleus that contains motor neurons for parasympathetics running in CNIX and CNX
DORSAL MOTOR NUCLEUS OF THE VAGUS
termination of nerve fibers from CNVIII
VESTIBULAR NUCLEI/COMPLEX
Inferior Cerebellar Peduncle provides a connection from what to what?

From where does it receive input?
connection from medulla to cerebellum

input from SPINAL CORD and BRAIN STEM
Middle cerebellar Peduncle

provides a connection from what to what?

is a relay for connections from the cerebral cortex to where?
connecetion from the basal pons to the cerebellum

relay for connections from the cerebral cortex to the cerebellum
structure that contains most of the cerebellar outputs
Superior cerebellar peduncle (connection from cerebellum to midbrain)
Pontine gray/basal bons
-bulbous nucleus on ventral aspect of pons
-termination of corticobulbar fibers
-and origin for pontocerebellar projections through middle cerebellar peduncle
DEEP CEREBELLAR NUCLEI (denate, interposed, fastigeal)
output nuclei from the cerebellum
nucleus associated with CEREBELLAR function
INFERIOR OLIVE NUCLEUS
What terminates at the Cochlear Nuclei?
auditory nerve fibers in CNVIII
Where is the Internal bend (genu) of CNVII?
The fasical nerve has a long course through the CAUDAL PONS with an internal bend (GENU) around the ABDUCENS N.
Where is the facial nucleus?

What type of fibers orginate here?
nucleus located in the CAUDAL PONS

origin of the MOTOR NERVE FIBERS to MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION
RAPHE NUCLEI
(where are they, what do they contain)
SEROTONIN-CONTAINING NUCLEI

in MIDLINE of brainstem
ABDUCENS NUCLEI
located where?
what kind if neurons are found here?
located in CAUDAL PONS

contains MOTOR NEURONS in CNVI (to lateral rectus muscle of eye)
The Trapezoid body is made of crossing fibers in the pons, for what pathway?
the auditory pathway
What nerve passes through the middle cerebellar peduncle in the pons?
CNV
contains motor neurons to jaw muscles (mastication)

termination of touch and pressure sensory fivers from the face (chief sensory nucleus)
TRIGEMINAL NUCLEI
part of the ventricle system located DORSAL to the brainstem from mid-medulla through pons
4th VENTRICLE
Cerebral Aqueduct of Sylvius
CSF path through midbrain
Periaqueductal Gray
(what is it, where is it, what is it involved in?)
NUCLEUS surrounding the cerebral aqueduct, involved in pain suppression
INFERIOR COLLICULUS is a relay for what?

where is it located?
relay for the AUDITORY PATHWAY

located dorsal to the cerebral aqueduct (IN TECTUM)
a multisensory nucleus involved in reflex head and eye movement
SUPERIOR COLLICULUS
the portion of the midbrain dosral to the cerebral aqueduct (comprised of the colliculi)
TECTUM
TEGMENTUM
"core" of the brain stem between the centricle system and the pyramids in the medulla, basal pons and crus cerebri in the midbrain
Cerebral Peduncle/Crus Cerebri
(where? what is it comprised of?)
in the midbrain

comprised of CEREBRAL CORTICAL EFFERENT projections to the BRAIN STEM and SPINAL CORD
SUBSANTIA NIGRA
large nucleus of the midbrain
located just dorsal to the crus cerebri

major source of DOPAMINE in basal ganglia

degenerates in PARKINSONS
RED NUCLEUS
motor nucleus in the midbrain
MEDIAL GENICULATE NUCLEUS
in caudal part of thalamus (part of diencephalon)

relay in AUDITORY PATHWAY
LATERAL GENICULATE NUCLEUS
in caudal part of thalamus (part of diencephalon)

replay in VISUAL PATHWAY
PULVINAR
major posterior projection of the THALAMUS
PINEAL GLAND
(where is it? what does it secrete?)
gland located just dorsal to the midbrain

involved in circadian secretion of melatonin
CEREBRAL ARTERIAL SUPPLY
Ant: INTERNAL CAROTIDS and branches
Post: VERTEBRALS/BASILAR and branches
CIRCLE OF WILLIS
PERFORATING ARTERIES
Anterior cerebral circulation is mainly supplied via
paired internal carotid arteries
Posterior cerebral circulation is mainly supprised via
paired VERTEBRAL ARTERIES joining to form the BASILAR artery (and resepctive branches)
connects the anterior and posterior circulations and connects the two hemispheres
THE CIRCLE OF WILLIS
arise from proximal portions of the major cerebral vessels, supply the structures in and around the base of the brain
PERFORATING ARTERIES
ICA
Interal Carotid Artery
-Cervical portion
-Petrous Portion
-Cavernous Portion
-Subarachnoid Portion
Cavernous Portion of ICA
(location) [branches]
(w/in cavernous sinus) [branches to pituitary, cranial nerves, cavernous sinus, dura]
Petrous Portion of ICA
(location) [branches]
(in petrous part of temporal bone) [inconsistent branches: tympanic/pterygoid]
Cervical Portion of ICA
(location) [branches]
(bifurcation of c. carotid to skull) [no branches]
Subarachnoid Portion of ICA
(location) [branches]
(from exit of cavernous sinus to its bifurcation into terminal branches:
Anterior Cerebral Artery (ACA)
and Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA)
Branches of the Intracranial(Subarachnoid) ICA
1) Opthalmic Artery
2) Posterior Communicating Artery
3)Anterior Choroidal Artery
4) Anterior Cerebral Artery
5) Middle Cerebral Artery
Opthalmic Artery
branch of what?
supplies what?
branch of Intracranial ICA

supplies orbit and contents
Posterior Communicating Artery
branch of what?
connects to what?
supplies what?
branch of Intracranial portion of ICA

connects ICA to POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY

perforators supply optic chiasm/tract and hypothalamus
Anterior Choroidal Artery
branch of what?
connects to what?
supplies what?
branch of Intracranial ICA

supplies the OPTIC TRACT, GLOBUS PALLIDUS< INTERNAL CAPSULE, UNCUS, MEDIAL TEMPORAL LOBE, CHOROID PLEXUS of the LATERAL VENTRICLE
Anterior Cerebral Artery
branch of what?
supplies what?
-medial division of the ICA bifurcation
-turns to enter interhemispheric fissure
-connected to Ant. Choroidal A. via (ant. Communicating A)
-cortical branches to medial, frontal, parietal lobes and corpus collosum
-perforating branches supply hypothalamus, corpus collosum, pituitary stalk, fornix, caudate septum pellucidum
Middle Cerebral Artery
branch of what?
located where?
supplies what?
-lateral branch of the (intracranial) ICA bifurcation
-runs in Sylvian Fissure
-cortical branches supply LATERAL TEMPORAL LOBE & most of LATERAL HEMISPHERE
-perforators supply CAUDATE, PUTAMEN, GLOBUS PALLIDUS, INTERNAL CAPSULE
PATH of the VERTEBRAL ARTERY
-originates from the subclavian
-travels through the transverse foramen
-curves around the lateral mass of the atlas
-enters the cranium via the foramen magnum
Branches of the VERTEBRAL ARTERY
1. Muscular/Meningeal branches in neck
2. POSTERIOR SPINAL ARTERY
3. POSTERIOR INFERIOR CEREBELLAR ARTERY (PICA)
4. ANTERIOR SPINAL ARTERY
POSTERIOR SPINAL ARTERY
branch of what?
supplies...?
branch of Vertebral Artery

supplies: POST MEDULLA/INF CEREBELLAR PEDUNCLE/posterior third of SPINAL CORD
PICA
branch of what?
supplies...?
posterior inferior cerebellar artery (branch of vertebral)

supplies: lateral MEDULLA/ TONSILS/ VERMIS/ inferolateral surface of CEREBELLUM
Anterior Spinal Artery
branch of what?
supplies...?
branch of vertebral artery

supplies: paramedian region of MEDULLA/ ant.two-thirds of SPINAL CORD
What provides the majority of the blood supply to the spinal cord?
Anterior Spinal Artery (anterior two-thirds)
Posterior Spinal Artery (posterior third)
formed by the junction of the two vertebral arteries at the pontomedullary border
BASILAR ARTERY
branches of the Basilar Artery
AICA (Ant/inf.Cerebellar Artery)
Pontine Arteries
SCA (Sup.Cerebellar Artery)
Posterior Cerebral Artery
AICA
(Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery)
course..
supplies..
branch(es)...
branches from Basilar artery runs toward int. auditory meatus, then travels in horizontal fissure of cerebellum

supplies: cerebellum around the fissure
branch: labarynthine artery (supplies internal auditory meatus and structures)
Pontine arteries
branches of what?
supply what structure?
multiple small arteries branching from Basilar artery

supply the PONS
Superior Cerebral Artery (SCA)
branch of what?
course...
supplies what?
-branch of basilar a.
-runs around the pons to upper cerebellum
-supplies: brainstem, upper surface of cerebellar hemispheres & upper vermis
Posterior Cerebral Artery
-branch of Basilar a.
-runs around brainstem, travels bt occipital lobes

-cortical branches supply: inferomedial TEMPORAL and PARIETAL LOBES & OCCIPITAL LOBE
-perforating branches supply: BRAINSTEM, THALAMUS, CHOROID PLEXUS of 3rd and 4th ventricles
Major Cerebral Venous Sinuses
Superior Sagittal Sinus
Inferior Sagittal Sinus
Great Cerebral Vein of Galen
Straight Sinus
runs in midline from frontal region to the occipital region and drains into the transverse sinus
SUPERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS
receives blood from cortical veins in frontal, parietal and occipital regions (including the Vein of Trolard)
SUPERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS
responsible for the bulk of CSF absorption
arachnoid granulations projecting into the superior sagittal sinus
runs in the inferior border of the falx and drains into the straight sinus
Inferior Sagittal Sinus
receives blood from the falx, corpus collosum, and medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere
Inferior Sagittal Sinus
Great Cerebral Vein of Galen
not a sinus, but an important vein that lies near the pineal gland and joins the inferior sagittal sinus to form the straight sinus
receives blood from the base of the brain and deep brain structures
Great cerebral vein of Galen
runs in the midline of the tentorium at the attachment of the falx and drains into the transverse sinus
Straight sinus
Transverse sinus receives blood from
the straight sinus
and superior sagittal sinus
the Vein of Labbe and adjacent occipital and cerebellar regions
Transverse sinus runs where?
laterally in the occipital region toward the base of the mastoid process
Sigmoid Sinus is a continuation of what?
the transverse sinus in the mastoid, becomes the internal jugular vein at the skull base
Cavernous sinus lies along what?
the side of the sphenoid
Cavernous Sinus contains
-multiple channels
-internal carotid artery
-CNII, IV, V1, V2 and VI
-blood from orbit, pituitary, temporal lob, and Superficial Middle Cerebral Vein
Cavernous Sinus is connected to what?
connected to posterior sinuses via the SUPERIOR PETROSAL SINUS and the INFERIOR PETROSAL SINUS