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81 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
"lazy eye"
"ghost image"
refractive error
blurry vision, worse late in day and improves briefly with blinking
ocular surface D/O
-chronic irritated feelings of lids and lashes
-itching of lid margins
ocular surface D/O
stinging and burning of eyes, worse at end of day and with reading/watch TV/computer
ocular surface D/O
examples of ocular surface D/O
excessive tearing
dry eye (paradoxical)
blurry vision
corneal opacity
what corneal opacity can cause progressive or chronic blurred vision
-Decompensated cornea w/edema
-corneal Dystrophy or Degen
-corneal Scar
"3 D'S"
acute onset blurriness w/pain
1. cloudy anterior chamber
2. corneal opacity (can cause acute or chronic)
painless, progressive decline in acuity
opacity in visual axis, with hazy view of fundus
Tx cataract
phacoemulsification (emulsify abnl (opaque) lens and place artificial intraocular lens)
"bugs", "spider webs" or "clouds" in visual field
vitreous opacity
are vitreous opacities painful
vision change with vitreous opacities
-all normal (nl pupils, no afferent defect; nl anterior segment) EXCEPT:

-fundus (hazy)
-confrontation fields
Hx of vitreous opacities
bugs, clouds, spider webs
ex's of vitreous opacities
-posterior vitreous detachment
-vitreous hemorrhage
-hazy vision
-pain, photophobia, injection
good acuity, no field defect
posterior vitreous detachment
no pain
assoc w/trauma, diabetes, retinal detachment
vitreous hemorrhage
is retinal detachment vision-threatening
distorted vision
retinal disorder
flashing lights
not painful
retinal d/O
what are photopsias?
what do they suggest?
=flashing lights
suggest retinal d/o
blind spot or visual field defect (scotoma)
retinal d/o
elderly person c/o blurred vision--distortion of vision and central scotoma
Age-Related Macular Degen (ARMD)
(type of retinal d/o)
-yellow lesions (drusen)
-pigment mottling with atrophic areas within macula
Age-Related Macular Degen (ARMD)
leading cause of central vision loss among elderly
Age-Related Macular Degen (ARMD)

*Wikipedia: macula (near the retina) contains the fovea, which contains the CONE CELLS:
*central vision
AV nicking
copper wiring
silver wiring
Hypertensive Retinopathy
retina capillary damage leads to exudates and hemorrhages
hypertensive retinopahty (mimics diabetic retinopathy)
-unilateral, painless loss of vision or blurred vision
-onset of scotoma or field defect
Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO or BRVO)
if vision loss, scotoma, or field defect affects 4 quadrants
Central Retinal Vein Occulsion (CRVO)
if vision loss, scotoma, or field defect affects retinal sector
Branch Retinal Vein Occulsion (BRVO)
what can cause Central Retinal Vein Occlusion
-Hypercoagulable states
what can cause BRVO (Branch Retinal Vein Occulsion)
what can cause amaurosis fugax
Retinal Artery Occlusion (CRAO or BRAO [Central Retinal Artery Occlusion or Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion])
"cherry red" spot
Retinal Artery Occlusion (CRAO or BRAO [Central Retinal Artery Occlusion or Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion])
Hollenhorst plaque
Retinal Artery Occlusion (CRAO or BRAO [Central Retinal Artery Occlusion or Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion])
how manage Retinal Artery Occlusion
work up for embolic, thrombotic, or arteritic Dz (Giant cell arteritis)
pathogenesis of vitreous attachment
viretrous gel shrinks and liquefies (d/t trauma, aging, post-ocular surgery)
==>the gel causes portions still attached to it to pull on it
==>this "tugging" stimulates the retina--causes flashing lights (photopsias)
==>condensed collagen fibers form opacities (floaters)
retinal breaks:
-vitreous traction of retina causes retina breaks
-occurs in periphery

Sx: "floaters and flashes"
Tx: laser Tx to avoid vision-threatening detachments of retina
"floaters and flashes"
retinal d/o (retinal break, retinal detachment)
curtain sensation
retinal detachment
how Tx retinal detachment
scleral buckle
leading cause of blindness in adults
diabetic retinopahty
primatry pathology of diabetic retinopahty?
vasculr damage
clinically significant macular edema indicates what?
early stage of NPDR (Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy)
capillary occlusion and "ddropout"
advanced stage of NPDR (Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy)
NPDR (Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy)--what happens?
early stage: clinically significant macular edema
1. injure capillaries
2. serum from blood leaks into tissues
3. tissue swells up like a sponge (EDEMA)

advanced stages: capillary occlusion and "dropout"
pathogensis of PDR (Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy)
nonperfusion==>ischemia==>abnl bv growth (=NEOVASCULARIZATION)

*These bv are very fragile; cough/Valsalva can cause them to rupture==>bleed into eye and can't see
complication of PDR (Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy)
vitreous hemorrhage
tractional retinal detachment
how Tx Clinically Significant Macular Edema
is it curative?
does it reverse damage?
*found in early NPDR

Tx with focal laser Tx
not curative
does not reverse damage
how Tx PDR
is it curative?
does it reverse damage?
Pan-Retinal Photocoagulation

not curative
does not reverse damage
how Tx vitreous hemorrhages
eye complications in sickle cell dz?
-Peripheral Retinal Artery Occlusions==>capillary nonperfusion
how Tx eye complications in sickle cell dz?
you get neovascularization (proliferative bv),

thus Tx with Pan-Retinal Photocoagulation (like for advanced PDR in diabetics)
pathogenesis of eye prob in systemic inflammatory dz
retinal vasculitis==>vascular damage, ischemic and vision loss
pathogenesis of eye prob in hyperviscosity syndromes
engorged retinal veins rupture==>retinal hemorrhages==>retina becomes ischemic
pathogenesis of eye prob in HIV
microangiopathy==>focal retina ischemia==>nerve fiber layer infarcts, retinal hemorrhages and exudates
when is vascularization of retina complete in fetal life?
by 40 wks
retinopathy of prematurity
A-V shunts, true neovascularization==>tractional retinal detachment and blindness
neoplasms of fundus
1. choroidal nevi (nevi=moles)
2. choroidal melanoma(MC ocular malignancy in adults)
3. retinoblastoma (infants and toddlers)
MC ocular malignancy in adults
choroidal melanoma
eye neoplasm in infants/kids
what is the problem in glaucoma?
-Glaucoma is considered an optic neuropathy!! (EXAM)
(damage of optic NERVE with loss of tissue and enlargement of optic cup)
how test for glaucoma
EXAM-A measurement of IOP is NOT a test for glaucoma
are headaches common in ocular problems
goal of glaucoma drugs?
lower IOP
is glaucoma just an increased IOP
no; it comprises various pathologic ocnditions. It involves optic nerve loss with loss of tissue and enlargement of optic cup.
how Tx glaucoma
-first give drugs to lower IOP
-if fail, do surgery:
1. trabeculoplasty (laser)
2. trabeculectomy
3. shunt placement
4. cyclodestruction
what is amblyopia
loss of visual acuity NOT correctable with glasses in an otherwise healthy eye
-onset in infancy or early childhood
what causes amblyopia?
-monocular or binocular?
failure of development (not an organic problem): ignored or "lazy" eye does not develop its normal structures and becomes ambloyopic`
-2 types
-misalignment of eye
-both eyes cannot simultaneous look at object of regard
2 types:
1. concomitant (nonparalytic)
2. incomitant (paralytic or restrictive)
concomitant strabismus- define

-angle of deviation is the same in all fields of gaze
-extraocular muscles fxn normally
-onset in childhood
incomitant strabismus
-angle of deviation varies with direction of gaze (b/c one eye is paralyzed and can't move, but the other eye can move)
-muscles or nerves might not be functioning
what causes cloudy anterior chamber
hyphema or hyphopyon
how test for strabismus
1. corneal light reflex
2. cover test
=broad epicanthal fold
(looks like strabismus b/c broad epicanthal fold)
pathogenesis of retinal detachment
vitreous detachment==>retinal break==>retinal detachment
how Tx angle closure glaucoma
laser iridotomy