Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
gold std to Dx MS
clinical assessment
what's wrong in MS
multiple exacerbations d/t lesions affecting CNS white matter (demyelination in CNS)
-2 attacks
-clinical evidence of 2 lesions
Clinically Definite MS
-2 attacks
-clinical evidence of 1 lesion
if MRI shows typical WM (white matter) lesions
-->Clinically Definite MS

if not
-->Clinically Probable MS
-1 attack
-clinical evidence of 1 lesion
if MRI shows typical WM lesions
-->Clinically Probable MS

if not
-->not diagnostic
-1 attack
-clinical evidence of one lesion plus oligoclonal bands in CSF
if MRI shows typical WM (white matter) lesions
-->Laboratory Supported Definite MS

if not
-->not diagnostic
who is more likely to develop MS?
-northern latitudes
what contributes to the development of clinically symptomatic MS?
-genes (certain MHC types)
-infectious exposure
Sx of MS
Disturbance of sensation, gait, and vision (monocular visual loss)

-optic neuritis (blurry vision)
-intranuclear opthalmoplegia (esp if bilateral; Goljan--look left, left eye has nystagmus (jerks) and right eye still stares at you, *pathognomonic for MS!)
-unusual sensory Sx: i.e. feel like a bruise but nothing is there
-L'hermitte's phenomenon (damage to posterior columns: fasciculus gracilis/cuneatus) in absence of cervical trauma
-Bladder/bowel dysfxn
Disease Course of MS
benign MS (15%)
relapsing-remitting (60%),
chronic-progressive (15%)

40% pts with intiial attacks render them non-ambulatory and may not recover
relapse rate of MS
0.5-1.0 MS exacerbation per year (1 every other year)
favorable prognostic factors within the first two years of MS:
2.relapsing-remitting course
3.optic or sensory symptoms (weird)
4.young age at onset (weird)
5.few exacerbations in first two years
clues that lead to doubt for Dx of MS eye findings remissions
3.localized Dz CSF abnormalities brain MRI abnormalities
6.atypical clinical features like prominent cortical involvement
purpose of CSF and MRI in Dx MS
to exclude other dz
unique CSF oligoclonal IgG: increased IgG synthesis within CSF compartment
BBB damage in CF?
CSF counts in MS
<50 cells/microliter
MRI results in MS
multiple periventricular white matter lesions
-little correlations b/w lesion load and disability
probability of new lesions vs. relapse in MS?
new lesions develop up to 10 times more frequently than clinical relapse
Tx for MS
-Glucocorticoids-does not change natural Hx of Dx
-methotrexate: for chronic progressive dz
Tx chronic progessive MS